273 pp. Lab. It has a thin crown, milky sap, small and yellowish-green flowers, and yellow capsule fruit. Common names: Physic Nut, Jatropha, Jamal ghota... Its a shrub around 3 m high. jatropha; Other Scientific Names. Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2008. Protected agriculture (e.g. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Invasiveness risk of biofuel crops using, Negussie A, Nacro S, Achten WMJ, Norgrove L, Kenis M, Hadgu KM, Aynekulu E, Hermy M, Muys B, 2015. Mathematical-Natural Scientific Faculty, University Hamburg, Wiggins IL, Porter DM, 1971. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Agnote No. Agnote No. Jatropha curcas, commonly called purging nut, Barbados nut or physic nut, is a dioecious small tree or large shrub that grows to 20’ tall. The genus Jatropha in America: principal intrageneric groups. Pestalotiopsis stem canker of Jatropha curcas. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. J. curcas is in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, which is a pantropical family including 228 genera and over 6500 species of trees and shrubs (The Plant List, 2013). Jatropha afrocurcas Pax J. curcas is poisonous to livestock and to people if seeds of J. curcas are consumed (Makkar and Becker, 1998), and overdoses cause severe diarrhoea and possible death. Flora of Guatemala. De L.C. When the seed shell splits, the radicle emerges and four small peripheral roots are formed. Journal of Applied Entomology, 123(6):347-350; 14 ref, Gupta RC, 1985. and Phoma sp. Foto n. 119316 - médicinier béni (Jatropha curcas) Leaves and fruit at Kahikinui, Maui - Credit: Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii - Image licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, permitting sharing and adaptation with attribution. (1 May 1753) Annotation: as "Curcas" Type-Protologue Locality: 'America calidiore' Type Specimens Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(1):74-79. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09619534, Goswami A, 2006. Preparations of all parts of the plant are used in traditional medicine as a laxative, emetic, cough treatment, and for healing wounds (Crothers, 1998; Heller, 1996), as a purgative and styptic, for toothache and strengthens gums, and to treat diarrhoea. The Javanese, among other names, call it Chinese castor oil. Compendium record. The presence of this weed in bunds and wastelands creates an obstruction to the movement of livestock, and cases of poisoning among cattle are also common. Heller J, 1996. Curcas lobata Splitg. Quart., 20(4):302-303, Swarbrick JT, 1997. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, Oudhia P, 2000. Jatropha curcas L. Econ. It is best adapted to arid and semi-arid conditions. Studies on the control of snail vectors of fosciolasis. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 8(1):49-53. http://www.ansinet.org/pjbs, Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. Its usefulness has been challenged, but it is true the plant can produce seeds with an oil content of 37%. The latex has antibiotic properties against certain bacteria and coagulating effects on … Adding biofuels to the invasive species fire? Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Branches have smooth gray bark and exude watery white latex when cut. 46, Cabral A, 1991. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/. by Sherley G]. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. A number of pests and diseases have been reported (see Heller, 1996), although in most countries they do not severely affect the plant. A number of studies have identified significant differences in oil yield from different provinces in Indian states. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. Chivandi E, Kachigunda B, Fushai F, 2005. Further studies on the actually environmental impacts of J. curcas are needed, especially where known to be invasive already such as on Pacific islands, and attempts must be made to assess the merits and demerits of this species as an invasive weed or valuable biofuel crop. A review article. It can also be reproduced artificially via cuttings and tissue culture.Physiology and PhenologySukarin et al. ; [10 pl., 1 fig., 1 map, ^italic~Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops^roman~ No. Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. Studies on Heteroptera in J. curcas stands in Nicaragua found Pachycoris klugii and Leptoglossus zonatus to be the most common (Grimm and Fuhrer, 1998). Recent Progress in Medicinal Plant, Vol. Jatropha. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp, Gordon DR, Tancig KJ, Onderdonk DA, Gantz CA, 2011. Planta Medica, 59(7):A686; 3 ref, Serra MCP, 1950. RTflexions sur les cultures olTagineuses TnergTtiques. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Bur. Flora of the Galapagos Islands. - Now pan tropic. (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus), Cladosporium sp., Chaetomium sp., Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum graminicola, Cercospora sp., Drechslera rostrata [Setosphaeria rostrata], Fusarium semitectum [F. pallidoroseum], F. solani, F. verticillioides [Gibberella moniliformis], Lasiodiplodia theobromae (the most prevalent), Periconia sp., Pestalotia sp. The genus comprises about 180 species, most of them in warm temperate and subtropical regions and the seasonally dry tropics.Dehgan and Webster (1979) revised the subdivision made by Pax (1910) and now distinguish two subgenera (Curcas and Jatropha) of the genus Jatropha, with 10 sections and 10 subsections to accommodate the Old and New World species. In: Wickens GE, Haq N, Day P, eds. Workshop Petrocrops. ed. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. http://www.tropicos.org/. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Plants have been used as living fences in some areas. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. Dehra Dun, India, 142-150, McVaugh R, 1945. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Insufficient evidence of Jatropha curcas L. invasiveness: experimental observations in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Its increasing infestation in pasture lands, forests, and National Parks is becoming a potential threat to existing biodiversity. Medicinal plants of Bombay Presidency., 250 + xxix pp. In: Engler A, ed. J. curcas looks very similar to Jatropha gossypiifolia and relatively similar to Ricinus communis. Flore illustree du senegal. Jatropha yucatanensis Briq.. Manihot curcas (L.) Crantz. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsular, Vols I & II. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-ARS, 2015. curcas is monoecious and protandrous, the ratio of male to female flowers being 29:1. Tropicos database. http://www.prota4u.info, Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. (Philippines), 6(2):30-34, Agharkar SP, 1991. Ovipositional and adult repellent action of some vegetable oils/extracts against potato tuber moth. Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. Houston, USA: Sci Tech Publishing LLC. by Bhojvaid PP] New Delhi, India: Teri Press, 207-219, Govaerts R, 2015. Philipp. Allelopathic studies conducted to evaluate the effects of different parts of J. curcas on germination and seedling vigour of different medicinal herbs revealed that J. curcas can damage the biodiversity of Chhattisgarh, India. Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, 25(4):130-138. http://www.pustaka-deptan.go.id/publication/p3254063.pdf, Anon, 1979. 2:12pp, Sieg K, 2007. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. J., 2:56. In Chhattisgarh, India, hand weeding is common practice for the control of J. curcas (Oudhia and Tripathi, 2002). The Plants Database includes the following 14 species of Jatropha . Cakes remaining after pressing can be further used for producing biogas and fertilizers. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Biological Invasions. Assamese. (Cultivo de pinhão manso (Jatropha curca L.) como alternativa para o semi-árido nordestino.) Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Seeds are inedible, but contain oil that may be used to make candles, soap and biofuel. New Delhi, India: Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, Sauerwein M, Sporer F, Wink M, 1993. After introduction into Asian countries, J. curcas has spread very rapidly, and due to its ethnobotanical uses, promotion as an ornamental and hedge plant encouraged its further spread. http://plants.usda.gov/, Wang SC, Huffman JB, 1981. Indian Forester, 129(8):939-949, Kiefer J, 1986. Wani et al. Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. Jatropha curcas oil: a substitute for diesel engine oil. The report will display the kingdom and all descendants leading down to the name you choose. - Introduced at an early date in colonial history from Mexico. Oil gloom to oil boom. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Francis G, Edinger R, Becker K, 2005. Journal of Applied Entomology, 122(9/10):515-521; 19 ref, Grimm C, Somarriba A, 1998. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. Preventing further invasion by collection all of the seeds may appear feasible as the seeds have an immediate market value as a source of oil. Minor forest products of India. by Garland T, Barr AC] Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 554-558, Martin G, Mayeux A, 1984. The oil is applied externally to treat skin disease, and for rheumatism and sciatica. [ed. Tolerates average to poor soils. Fruiting behaviour indicates that the plant might selectively eliminate the growing offspring, especially the geitonogamous fruit, to allocate the resources available mostly for xenogamous fruit, and the ability to self-pollinate through geitonogamy is considered to be adaptive for J. curcas colonization (Raju and Ezradanam, 2002). ex Lanj. Research on Crops, 1(1):116-118; 6 ref, Oudhia P, Tripathi RS, 2002. Jatropha seeds contain between 40 and 50% of high quality oil (Basha and Sujatha, 2009). In: Crop improvement, production technology, trade and commerce. Place and role of trees. Do miracle plants exist? It is very profitable crop. Stone B C, 1970. Swarbrick J T, 1997. Vegetative growth occurs mainly in the rainy season, with little increment in the dry season, and like many other Jatropha species, J. curcas is a succulent that sheds its leaves during the dry season.Environmental Requirements 2. Spore, 16:1-3. In Burkina Faso, Negussie et al. Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Seedlings and juvenile Jatropha are easily removed by hand, but cut portions and hand-pulled plants should be kept out of contact with moist soil or regrowth may occur. After introduction into Asian countries, J. curcas has spread very rapidly, and due to its ethnobotanical uses, promotion as an ornamental and hedge plant encouraged its further spread. Curcas sect. Workshop Petrocrops. New records of fungi from India. Description Scientific Names: Jatropha curcas Common Names: Purging Nut, Physic Nut, Barbados Nut, Arandi, Jarak Plant Type: It's a dioecious small tree or large shrub. Natural Resources Forum, 29(1):12-24, Freitas AS Barjona de, 1906. Hamburg, Germany: Dr. Kovac, Heller J, 1996. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Land Resources Series No.1. Harvested seed may be pressed for production of biodiesel. Jatropha curcas L.. subg. Male flowers: sepals 5, approximately 4 mm, connate at base; petals oblong, green-yellow, approximately 6 mm, connate to middle, hairy inside; disk glands 5, nearly terete; stamens 10; outer 5 filaments free, inner filaments connate in lower part. Vitexin and isovitexin, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol from leaves have been identified as allelochemicals that are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects of J. curcas on neighbouring plants (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1991), and harmful allelopathic effects on germination and seedling vigour of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), rice, chickpeas and lentils have been reported (Oudhia, 2000). Flora of the Galapagos Islands. Guide to Plants Tolerant of Arid and Semi-arid Conditions: Nomenclature and Potential Uses. Caius JF, 1986. Curcas indica A.Rich; Curcas lobata Splitg. Jatropha curcas (jatropha); leaves and flowers. Jatropha curcas is a flowering plant that is native to Central America, Mexico, South America, and other tropical locales. Jatropha curcas L. Physic nut. Castiglionia lobata Ruiz & Pav. National database of exotic invasive species. Jatropha curcas, commonly called purging nut, Barbados nut or physic nut, is a dioecious small tree or large shrub that grows to 20’ tall. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Plants will self-seed and have the potential to spread. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. A synopsis of Jatropha, subsection Eucurcas, with the description of two new species from Mexico. Broad intra- and inter-populational variation was also assessed using molecular markers (Basha and Sujatha, 2007) and peroxidase enzyme activity (Kumar et al., 2005).Reproductive BiologyJ. Some of the popular common names for barbados are barbados, bedbugs, large purge nut, black vomit nut, tangy brazil nut, bubble bush, cuban physical nut, curcas bean, fig nut, physical nut, pork nut, poison nut, purge pine nut, Indian pine nut, nut purge, wild castor and … Indian Forester, 132(6):763-766. http://www.indianforester.org, Anitha K, Chakrabarty SK, Sunil N, Rao RDVJP, Varaprasad KS, Khetarpal RK, 2005. The flora of Guam. In Zambia, primary seed dispersal of J. curcas was limited: rodents and shrews dispersed and predated seeds and fruits, but none of the seeds repositioned in their burrows could establish (Negussie et al., 2013a). Stanford, USA: Stanford University Press, Wiggins IL, Porter DM, 1971. Improved livelihoods and environmental protection through biodiesel plantations in Asia. Gov. Curcas lobata Splitg. Taipei, Taiwan: Epach Publishing Co. Ltd. In laboratory experiments, ground J. curcas capsules showed molluscidal activity against the host of liver fluke (Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa) (Agaceta et al., 1981). Cotton Res. For further information on the uses of J. curcas see: Persinos et al., 1964; Wang and Huffman, 1981; Banerji et al., 1985; Ben Salem and Palmberg, 1985; Shelke et al., 1985; Mathur, 1986; Srivastava, 1986; Budowski, 1987; Anon., 1988; Paroda and Mal, 1989; Sherchan et al., 1989; Thomas, 1989; Weiss, 1989; Cabral, 1991; Roorda, 1991; Jones and Miller, 1992; Sauerwein et al., 1993; Solsoloy, 1993; Oudhia and Tripathi, 2002. In: Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. Biomass, 8:277-282, Basha SD, Sujatha M, 2007. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/, Australia, Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2008. Maple-like, 3-5 lobed, pale green leaves (to 6” wide) are cordate at the bases. Locally, vehicles and machinery aid the spread of Jatropha through the movement of capsules and seed, vegetative parts of the plant, and soil containing seeds. Biological Invasions, 17(1):149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html, Roorda FA, 1991. Oudhia P, Tripathi R S, 2002. These three species can be distinguished by the following differences: Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. The PLANTS Database. Re-examination of the antimicrobial activities of Xylopia aethiopica, Carica papaya, Ocimum gratissimum and Jatropha curcas. Inter and intra-population variability of Jatropha curcas (L.) characterized by RAPD and ISSR markers and development of population-specific SCAR markers. Jatropha acerifolia Salisb. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Curcas purgans Medik. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br, Jones N, Miller JH, 1992. University of California Publications in Botany, Vol. Madras Agricultural Journal, 70(7):490, Singh RP, 1970. Presence of this weed in populated areas is considered to be dangerous, as deaths, particularly in children due to accidental intake have been common in India. Meyer J Y, 2000. Flora medica. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Major medicinal plants. The introduction of a vigorous pasture in suitable areas will assist in controlling the rate of spread of Jatropha (Pitt, 1999). In: Tropicos database, St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Bellyache Bush (Jatropha gossypifolia). J. curcas is a shrub or treelet, 2-5 m tall, with watery latex; bark smooth; branches glaucous-gray, glabrous, sparsely lenticellate, pith larger. curcas is a diploid species with 2n = 22 chromosomes (Soontornchainaksaeng and Jenjittikul, 2003). Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Jatropha is a genus of flowering plants in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. Positive (inhibitory) allelopathic effects of some obnoxious weeds on germination and seedling vigour of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.). No known serious insect or disease problems. GeneticsJ. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Many pests were recorded by Shanker and Dhyani (2006), including Pachycoris klugii, Agonosoma trilineatum, Scutellera nobilis [Scutellera perplexa], Pempelia morosalis, Stomphastis thraustica [Stomphastis plectica], Achaea janata and Oxycetonia versicolor, while Stegodyphus sp., Pseudotelenomus pachycoris [Telenomus pachycoris], Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Leptoglossus zonatus are some of their biological control agents. Seeds are also dispersed by water and some spread occurs from the tuberous roots which sucker. Anon., 1988. 3 (17), 9, 16. Gouvrenement du Senegal, Ministrere du Development Rural et del' Hyraulique, Direction des Eaux et forets, Dakar, Bhasabutra R, Sutiponpeibun S, 1982. Rev. Another scutellarid, Agonosoma trilineatum is also a serious problem from seed-feeding, and red pumpkin beetles (Aulacophora foveicollis) are also found to infest the leaves (Sharma, 2006). 583. Purging nut is a member of the spurge family and closely related to castor oil plant (Ricinus communis).Genus name from the Greek words iatros meaning physician and trophe meaning food in reference to the edible seed (in very small quantities) of some species. The name derives from its cultivation and use as a hedge or fence (baked). J. curcas has received most attention recently for its perceived potential as a future ‘miracle’ crop, as a source of biofuels, though in reality, there are few accurate and detailed reports that quantify the actual economic benefits that can be accrued (e.g. A new report of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. Fitoterapia, 60(2):147-155, USDA-ARS, 2008. A risk assessment for Florida suggested that the species has a high probability of becoming invasive (Gordon et al., 2011), while Bridgemohan and Bridgemohan (2014) conducted a risk assessment for the Caribbean islands and say that J. curucas should not be considered as a bioenergy crop within the ecological limits of their study. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Vol. Comunicatao No. The oil content of each seed ranges from 30-40%. BeitrSge zur Kenntnis der Anatomie der wichtigsten Euphorbiaceensamen unter besonderer Berncksichtigung ihrer Erkennungsmerkmale in Futtermitteln. ex Lanj.. Curcas purgans Medik.. Jatropha acerifolia Salisb.. Jatropha afrocurcas Pax. Effect of green manure on rice production. Negussie et al. Philipp, 6:27, Meshram PB, Joshi KC, 1994. Diploma thesis, University Veracruz, Xalapa Enriquez, Veracruz, Mexico, Arruda FPde, Beltrão NEde M, Andrade APde, Pereira WE, Severino LS, 2004. (RTflexions sur les cultures olTagineuses TnergTtiques. It contains approximately 170 species of succulent plants, shrubs and trees (some are deciduous, like Jatropha curcas). http://www.invasives.org.au/downloads/isc_weedybiofuels_oct07.pdf, Makkar HPS, Becker K, 1998. It is also very drought tolerant and can withstand slight frost (Orwa et al., 2009). Stanford, USA: Stanford University Press, Wilbur RL, 1954. Castiglionia lobata Ruiz & Pav.. Curcas adansonii Endl.. Curcas curcas (L.) Britton & Millsp.. Curcas drastica Mart.. Curcas indica A.Rich.. Curcas lobata Splitg. Martin G, Mayeux A, 1984. London, UK: Chapman and Hall, 135-149, Pax F, 1910. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. In: Sherley G, tech. Agroforestry Realities, Possibilities and Potentials. Typ. 1, Part 3. Flowers give way to green seed pods, each with 2-3 oily black seeds. Hydrocarbon producing and rubber producing crops: Evaluation of United States plant species. ; 13 ref, Agriculture Handbook 165, 1960. In: Agnote (Darwin), Darwin, Australia: Department of Industries and Fisheries, Northern Territory. The name is derived from the Greek words ἰατρός (iatros), meaning "physician", and τροφή (trophe), meaning "nutrition", hence the common name physic nut.