In Liberia and Ghana the minimum bole diameter for exploitation has been fixed at 70 cm, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm. leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. ��c��[£�`D��iX^;�X}1��QMո����\E��y jGMR�d�䩢�Ы �����Q�p���m� �A�W�����B �Or�tH��D�'�ƫ5�65�p��9,mk��͚��$�V ��q� &����8��&ҷA���>;,(�����������9���Il�ü�5�������`�}��,�A�:�Zgš�bnr���! �����6��V�����r2POX����]�����PI�����o~:m l�p���پ�>�5 ���@�4<92'QH_G2m���`�"b� ��_8��r��:c�!�V�~΀"Q��;��H�HyQ�`7U�UvbL�. It is suitable for paper making, although the paper is of moderate quality. Terminalia superba: Family: Combretaceae: Afara. Annual growth rates of 2.5 m in height have been reported for the first 10 years after planting, but in Ghana trees have reached 14 m in height and 22 cm in bole diameter at an age of 4 years. It is most common in disturbed forest. Research Article Open Access 3 4 0///107 9 1056,/301 Revie Article Open Access Fahmy et al., Med Aromat Plants 2015, 4:5c 10.4172/2167-0412.1000218 *Corresponding author: Yields were dependent upon plant species, parts and solvent of extraction. The grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse. Leaves usually spirally arranged, often crowded at the ends of the branches, sometimes on short shoots, rarely opposite, petiolate or subsessile, usually entire but occasionally subcrenate, often with 2 or more glands at or near the base of the lamina or on the petiole (but not in our area). Limba, fraké, noyer du Mayombe (Fr). afrik. It has a self-supporting growth form. It is not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood. Combretaceae. Fallen leaves are used in the treatment of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases. & Wong, W.C. (Editors). Trunk diameter can be up to 1.5 m. It is native to western Africa. pp. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). Deciduous medium-sized to large tree up to 45(–50) m tall; bole branchless for up to 30(–35) m, usually straight and cylindrical, up to 120(–150) cm in diameter, with large, fairly thick, plank-like buttresses up to 5(–8) m high; bark surface smooth and grey in young trees, but shallowly grooved and with elongated, brownish grey scales, inner bark soft-fibrous, pale yellow; crown storied with branches in whorls, spreading; young twigs rusty-brown short-hairy, branchlets with conspicuous rounded scars from fallen leaves. The average annual increment in heartwood volume in plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha. Individuals can grow to 5.4 m. The wood, usually traded as ‘limba’, ‘afara’, ‘ofram’ or ‘fraké’, is valued for interior joinery, door posts and panels, mouldings, furniture, office-fittings, crates, matches, and particularly for veneer and plywood. In general, leaves as source and water as extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol. Terminalia superba is widespread in West and Central Africa, from Guinea Bissau east to DR Congo and south to Cabinda (Angola). Please cite this paper as: Ngemenya MN, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou D, Kang TR, Mbah JA. The leaves of Terminalia bellirica (250 g) and Terminalia sericea (250 g) were air-dried, ground, and extracted with 100% methanol at room temperature for three days (6 × 500 mL). Table 2: Documentation of Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment and Management of Human Diseases by Some Communities in Southern Ghana It is native to India but also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and some other Asian Countries. Terminalia superba is most common in moist semi-deciduous forest, but can also be found in evergreen forest. Growth rings: (1: growth ring boundaries distinct); (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent). Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia or Limba, Afara (UK), Korina (US) ) is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa.. Le présent travail a pour objectif de réaliser une synthèse bibliographique et une analyse des résultats de recherche portant sur la composition phytochimique ainsi que les propriétés biologiques et pharmacologiques de T. superba. • Bolza, E. & Keating, W.G., 1972. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps[ It is suitable for light construction, light flooring, ship building, interior trim, vehicle bodies, sporting goods, toys, novelties, musical instruments, food containers, vats, turnery, hardboard, particle board and pulpwood. I. Spatial variation in structure and size of axes. shown in Figure 1. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Terminalia Catappa leave extract is used topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease. Pflanzen-Fam. Elle est beaucoup employée en pharmacopée indigène. Limba, white afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo walnut (En). Limba . 710 pp. Under good conditions planted trees may reach a bole diameter of 50 cm in 20 years. It is a deciduous riparian tree and it can grow up to a height of about 20 to 27 meters. A favored plantation species in West Africa. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. African timbers: the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species. Limbo (Po). Deals with: T. superba, T. ivorensis, T. macroptera (heartwood extracts); T. catappa (heartwood extracts and stem bark); T. glaucescens (rootlets, root bark, leaves and fruits); T. laxiflora (leaves, fruits and root bark); and T. avicennioides (root bark). and Diels (Afara) stands of 11, 13 and 15 years of age and the adjacent natural vegetation at two sites in Onigambari and Sapoba in southwestern were compared.. Annales des sciences forestières, INRA/EDP Sciences, 1992, 49 (4), pp.389-402. 5. Cette espèce est originaire d' Afrique : Angola, Cameroun, République du Congo, République démocratique du Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinée, Guinée-Bissau, Guinée équatoriale, Libéria, Nigeria et Sierra Leone. Leaves arranged spirally, clustered near ends of branchlets, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole (1.5–)3–6(–7) cm long, with 2 glands near apex; blade obovate, (4–)6–17(–20) cm × (2.5–)4–10 cm, cuneate at base, short-acuminate at apex, thinly leathery, glabrous, pinnately veined with 4–7 pairs of lateral veins. • Sosef, M.S.M., Boer, E., Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. Terminalia superba, the superb terminalia or limba, afara (UK), korina (US), is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa. List of various diseases cured by Terminalia Chebula. The wood is also used as firewood and for charcoal production. Terminalia arjuna is a member of Combretaceae family. In natural forest in the Central African Republic a mean annual bole diameter increment of 9.5 mm has been recorded, in Cameroon 11 mm. Terminalia (alluding to the leaves being borne upon the terminus of the shoot). This supports their use in traditional treatment of malaria, further development into an antimalarial phytomedicine and search for antimalarial lead from their secondary metabolites. Terminalia L. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. hal-00882811 Original article Vegetative development, primary and secondary growth of the shoot system of young Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. This study confirms the high antiplasmodial activity and safety of T. catappa and T. superba leaves. Terminalia superba is a deciduous tree species that is usually found in the upper storey in deciduous, semideciduous and moist tropical forests, where it occurs naturally. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. Terminalia superba is classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after forest exploitation. The plant is not self-fertile. In natural forest in Cameroon an average density of 0.4–3.5, Young plantations in Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria have been defoliated by larvae of the moth. Soil properties and nutrient distribution under Terminalia superba Engl. Only one species, T. Catappa, the Indian almond or tropical almond, is well known in American horticulture, but several others are important in the Orient, principally for their fruits, known as myrobalans, which are used in dyeing, tanning, and in medicine. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula. Terminalia superba, le fraké ou limba, est une espèce d’arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77: 19–24. Bottom middle, upper and top crown positions are designated by the letters B, M, U, and T respectively. Positions of sampling of leaf samples for the study of nutrient concentrations in the leaves of forest trees {Terminalia superba and Pynanthus angolcnsis) in Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve, Cameroon. VFr�GY���{��$>�DMփ=*m�qj�}t�ck��~�����5S�q��V�Fi��a�yI�a���n{! Older trees often develop boles with brittle heart. Other Common Names: Ofram (Ghana), Frake (Ivory Coast), Afara (Nigeria), Akom (Cameroon), Limba (Zaire, Angola). It is used locally for temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils. Terminalia superba Engl. Fruit a winged nut, transversely oblong-elliptical in outline, 1.5–2.5 cm × 4–7 cm including the wing, nut c. 1.5 cm × 7 mm, golden brown, glabrous, indehiscent, 1-seeded. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Flies. Terminalia superba is a deciduous Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 40 m (131ft) at a fast rate. 4: 26, t. 14B (1900). Growth is rhythmic, resulting in clustered leaves and whorled branches. ���p9Bo-�nҺ��7�nXܻ�*��Ky7�ƃ�Z��٦�ɗ�]�q�{w�o;U��F�d*�5.�r3ۉ_��=)����b�{�Q�s'ˬ}�p6�,d{7�U��[g������Ր�w�>bc�,t6�㝁���t��䭬|���{7�΢�o���m�g�o^������|�������n��+����o��ȓ� �V���;D���q*��(L�W�����H���R��S�s�R��x��� L��r@�͉�.��l���4QT��� ���k�k�c׽n���4g��y�p�kwm�!�֭cUS�9�r��k����i�=f�j��hCj� �.���bhmt/�KQ� >*w)�d�/��u~��9��0�a��Sw��,e _@C�������Ga�^���v�j�U_�5]��ŝ��q �c5}�e.�V�����ӫ;�N9;��tA���^�L �K��?�}�P��P��ڽl��y��3k'�s�[�%N�Q�Kk.�~F�ѥ���Ö$���g/a��N�.� 'Y30�� 27,�s��{o�c$x@wZl��59�&��v�{ ���j`����qm#�`�|�D���/o5bv�9�d�0���t����f0f���A�%�Lq � Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties. Conclusions. http://www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp?ccode=tem_su, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/ agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License. Names of Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the world are also given. Leaves : Terminalia Catappa leaves are rich in flavonoid content. Mwalambe (Sw). in Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Australia, Brazil and Argentina. et Diels (Combretaceae) est une plante largement répartie en Afrique. How Terminalia Chebula is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. The methanol extracts were combined, filtered, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C. Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. powdered dried leaves (l), stem bark (sb) and root (r) of Terminalia mantaly (Tm) and Terminalia superba (Ts) and 12 derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and 4 final residues of selected extracts were assessed for antiplasmodial potential in … In conclusion, this study demonstrates the hypotensive as well as the antihypertensive effects of a crude aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba. Distribution: Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire; occurs in rain and savanna forests.

terminalia superba leaves

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