bent, expanded) within certain limits. The extruder in a tire manufacturing process is a screw-type system, consisting primarily of an extruder barrel and extruder head. Due to the cold drawing process, CDS has excellent micro-structure uniformity and consistency. The tubular shape is rolled in a hot furnace that has temperature controllers and recorders. Specialty Tubes . Cold drawn seamless steel tubes process: After the last heat treatment there is a light finishing pass (cold drawing) With proper subsequent processing, the tube can be cold-formed (e.g. offerings, click here. Click here to reference raw material tolerances by product type. Sainest Tubes Pvt. Other Components Which Liquids Will Flow (Especially at High Speeds), Nuclear, Wind, Solar, Gas, and Coal Plant Applications. Click here to contact a Technical Advisor. Fax: 513-777-5695, © 2018 - 2020 Industrial Tube and Steel Corporation • All rights reserved. Probably the best-known application of a cathode-ray tube is as the picture tube in a television. This manufacturing method starts in the same manner as welded and drawn tubing. Plastics Seamless Pipes Seamed / Welded Pipes 13. For more bespoke or complex options just give us a quick ring on +44 (0) 1752 201275 or send us a message. Wakayama Works was established in 1942 and has become the integrated supply center for seamless pipes. APPLICATIONS These tubes are intended to resist to internal … Plymouth takes pride in the manufacturing of Seamless Cold Drawn Carbon & Alloy Steel tubing and each order is custom made per customer’s specification. Can we make changes to mating parts? As cold drawn tubes have a glossier, no-seam finish they also produce better end products from processes such as dipping, etching and anodizing. Tires are found on automobile s, trucks, buses, aircraft landing gear, tractors and other farm equipment, industrial vehicles such as forklifts, and common conveyances such as baby carriages, shopping carts, wheel chairs, bicycles, and motorcycles. Cold-rolled strip is rolled into tube form and fusion welded without the addition of filler metal. The CDS process creates a steel tube with tight tolerances and a smooth finish while HFS tubes have a rough finish with thicker walls. Fax: 330-474-0015, 9206 Port Union Rialto Rd. Phone: 513-777-5512 Both offer durability and good machinability, though CDS round steel tubes provide a higher strength-to-weight ratio. Avon Tubetech Private Limited - Offering Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS), कोल्ड ड्रॉन सीमलेस ट्यूब, New Items in Faridabad, Haryana. Other applications include use in oscilloscopes, radar screens, computer monitors, and flight simulators. Wakayama - Japan. Also the EH 12AX7 and Tung Sol 12AX7 are identical but the TS has a different getter, the rest of the tube is the same tube. For the nasal spray flu vaccine (i.e., the live attenuated influenza vaccine – LAIV), the starting CVVs are live, but weakened viruses that go through a different production process. Privacy Policy, 0.250" to 10.000" O.D. The Compact Disc has become ubiquitous since its introduction in the early 1980s. EPA is in the process of developing a regulation that would establish limits on the HAPs emitted from the rubber tire manufacturing process. After the final cold-forming process the tubes are annealed in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum. Sainest Tubes Pvt Ltd was established in December 1988. The steel strip is unwound from coils and side-trimmed to control width and condition the edges for welding. Terms & Conditions   -   If you are not tax-exempt, regretfully we cannot accept your order due to tax reporting requirements. Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India) 40 Kms away from Ahmedabad. Metallic Pipes A. Seamless Pipes • Pierce and Pilger process • Plug rolling process • Continuous mandrel rolling process • Push bench process • Pierce and Draw process • Tube extrusion process 14. Flat sub-volume typically 3 to 10 tons / volume. Tires for most v… West Chester, Ohio 45069, Toll Free: (800) 332-9567 The stainless steel tubes are cleaned thoroughly to remove dirt before the heating process begins. The origin from a flat strip results in a more concentric product than Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS). The tubes are annealed above the upper transformation point in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum. For more information and quick references pertaining to raw material, machining, heat treating, and I.T.S. ABOUT US. Cold drawn seamless steel tube process Cold Drawn Seamless Mechanical Tubing (CDS) is a cold drawn 1018/1026 steel tube which offers uniform tolerances, enhanced machinability and increased strength and tolerances compared to hot-rolled products. Cold Drawn Seamless Mechanical Tube (CDS) EN 10305-1: 2010 E235+C (Previously BS6323 Pt 4, CFS3 BK, BS980 CDS2) Does the current design already assume a specific forming method? Common applications for Cold Drawn Seamless steel tubing include: Hydraulic components; American Tube uses the Tungsten Inert Gas (T.I.G.) Phone: 330-474-5530 Fax: 513-777-5695, Toll Free: (800) 662-9567 Fabricators who need to do end forming frequently ask many of the same questions, whether the project is a part or an assembly of parts. Whether you've got a large construction project, or need parts for industrial machinery, our team of steel fabrication consultants will ensure that your project is provided with the parts you need, when you need them. Please Note: We will require your state tax exemption certificate prior to the processing of your order. Plymouth has the capability to manufacture seamless carbon & alloy steel tubing from our facilities across the United States and exports the high quality material around the world. Produced from hot rolled 1026, the cold drawing process increases the tube's physical properties and offers better tolerances and reduced machining allowances over hot finish seamless. Manufacturing Process. Mean while the tube is usually produced according to norms as ASTM A513, DIN 2391, DIN 1630, DIN 1629, EN 10216-2, A 519, etc on customer’s request. welded and plug (or mandrel) drawn method. CDS seamless tube and pipe is produced by piercing hot billets and subsequent rolling which reduces their diameter and elongates them. At duplication.ca, we have chosen an experienced, ISO9002-certified CD manufacturing partner that has been in the business since the early days of the Compact Disc. Tubing Manufacturing Process Our production process combines proven methods and new technologies to consistently produce TIG welded and mandrel drawn tubing of very high quality at economical costs. Such as electro-galvanized, hot dip galvanized, electro-galvanized fingerprint resistant, painted steel roll damping composite steel, PVC laminating steel plates, etc., so that the excellent quality of these products has a beautiful, high resistance to corrosion, has been widely used. The tubes therefore have only low deformability. For almost two decades Custom Downstream Systems has been a North American leading company in the manufacturing of custom downstream plastic extrusion machinery delivering turnkey systems for most polymer or rubber applications including pipes, profiles, tubes, engineering plastics, automotive parts, custom products, and medical devices. round tube → heating → ​​perforation → Heading → ​​annealing → ​​pickling → ​​oiled (copper) → multi-pass cold drawn (cold rolled) → blank tube → heat treatment → straightening →hydrostatic testing (testing) → mark → storage. Tube Cross Reference: Tad 12AX7-PS-TAD is the same tube as Ruby 12AX7-C5 both of which are Shuguang. Cold drawn seamless tube usually has a shinier look with no weld lines increasing the aesthetics of the products in which it is incorporated. FDA tests and approves all influenza vaccines prior to release and shipment. Can the material accommodat… Cold rolled steel coil finishing after annealing, cut the head, tail, trimming, flattening, smooth, heavy volume, or longitudinal clipboard. A tire is a strong, flexible rubber casing attached to the rim of a wheel. Toll Free: 800-662-9567 Basic steps in pneumatic tire manufacturing process are chemical mixing, Calendaring, Extruding, making beads, tire building and curing process, "Green tire" is the industrial term used for a half-built tire before the curing process. Can I achieve the same result with fewer parts? It is then selectively cold worked in the weld area and given a full solution anneal, causing this area to recrystallize. THE COMPACT DISC MANUFACTURING PROCESS. Rolling hard roll weight is generally 6 to 13.5 tons, the coil diameter of 610mm. Tires provide a gripping surface for traction and serve as a cushion for the wheels of a moving vehicle. CDS (Cold Drawn Seamless) relates to the manufacturing process and not a specific type/grade of metal. 13 3.1. In the CDS process, the mother pipe is pulled through a die & plug in cold without any heating. Raw Materials Used 64. Manufacturing Process CDS seamless tube and pipe is produced by piercing hot billets and subsequent rolling which reduces their diameter and elongates them. Click here to find out what ASTM specification your material meets. Future 14 6. It is located at Chhatral (Dist. Phone: 330-474-5530 The manufacturing process continues with quality testing, filling and distribution. Streamline your supply chain with high-quality Gray Iron Round Bar from Industrial Tube & Steel. There are many types of CDS tubes available, some with high elongation which will allow for bending, forming and manipulation but will contain little strength. Heating is used to remove the possible stress on the seamless tubes and let it have a seamless shape. The cathode-ra… Procedure Tubes and Pipes From Metal / Steel From Non Metals i.e. Tube Manufacturing Process PengSir 2018-12-29T14:55:32+08:00 COLD DRAWING Typically used as the first form of size reduction for seamless tubes, cold drawing reduces the diameter by pulling the tube through a die that is smaller than the tube. This material is then passed through a die and over a mandrel plug to produce an accurate size and gauge which is the essence of the cold drawing process. Cold Pilgered / Cold Drawn Tubes Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS) as implied is made by cold drawing a larger mother seamless pipe, which is generally manufactured through a HFS process. Read about company. Seamless pipes are extensively applied for the nuclear device, gas, petrochemical, ship building and boiler industries. As a leading metals distributor for over 60 years, we have the inventory, resources, and capabilities to meet your material needs on time and within budget. The general cold strip mills, volume should go through continuous annealing (CAPL unit) to eliminate cold hardening and rolling stress, or batch annealing reach the mechanical properties of the corresponding standard specifies. Due to the superior strength and hardness, it produces a better machined surface and therefore a better-looking component. The rubber tire manufacturing industry is the subject of a New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) published in 40 CFR Part 60 Subpart BBB, and promulgated on September 15, 1987. First, the rubber compound is fed into the extruder barrel where it goes through a heating, blending, and pressurizing process. Seamless pipes dominates 65% of market share in Chinese boiler industry. Rolling hard roll can be used as the raw material of the hot-dip galvanizing plant, hot dip galvanizing line set annealing line. Cold drawing increases the strength of the tube therefore making it very suitable for safety and performance critical applications. Coil diameter 6m. Cold rolled steel coil substrate products deep processing of high value-added products. ERW can also be known as CREW (Cold Rolled Electric Welded). The Mullard EL34 reissue is the same tube as the now discontinued Sovtek EL34. The conventional method of manufacturing tubes for pneumatic tires at the present time is to extrude a tube of uncured rubber, cut a length of tube from the extrusion and butt join the ends of the length of tube to form it into an annulus. The tube alloy and production process are important factors regarding the part design and the forming method. Use our calculators to help determine the weight or dimension of your specific raw material needs. It is the company flagship to deliver Carbon steel, Low alloy steel and Martensitic stainless steel material. We're renowned for our personal service and we'll happily guide you through the whole CD manufacturing process from start to finish, from CD duplication for shorter runs (100-300 units), to CD replication for larger runs (500+). What does the formed tube need to do? Tyre Manufacturing Process 4.1 Compounding and Banbury mixing 9 4.2 Milling 10 4.3 Extruding and Calendering 11 4.4 Component Assembly and Building 11 4.5 Curing and Vulcanizing 12 4.6 Inspection and Finishing 135. The nomenclature ERW refers to a specific type of welding process that involves both spot and seam welding. Copyright © 2011 Sunny Steel Enterprise Ltd.  All Rights Reserved, ASTM A556M-88 cold drawn steel heater tubes, How to get rid of surface stains of cracking tube, Steel pipe hydraulic pressure test equipment, Application of square seamless steel pipe, How to calculate a steel pipe theoretic weight, Precision cold drawn steel tube production process, Difference between galvanized pipe and seamless pipe, Alloy tube (Alloy pipe) is a kind of seamless steel pipe, Manufacturing Porcessing Specification for Seamless pipe, Wall thickness tolerance of seamless steel pipe, Drawing process of precision seamless tube, Stress relief annealing of seamless steel pipe, Hydrostatic testing and eddy current testing, Difference between seamless and seam pipe, Deoxidation iron requirements of seamless steel pipe, Difference between seamless steel pipe and ordinary steel pipe, Thick wall seamless steel tube production process, Requirements on pipe billet for hot-rolled seamless tube, Heat boiler seamless extrusion technology, Seamless pipe heating temperature control, Cold drawn steel pipes pickling passivation, Hot-rolled seamless steel pipe deformed processes, Performance and characteristics of precision seamless pipe, Seamless carbon steel pipe hardness test method, The application and uses of carbon steel pipe, The quality standards for seamless steel pipe, Characteristics of welded steel pipe and seamless steel pipe, Difference between cold drawn tubes and cold rolled tubes, Mechanical properties of seamless steel tubes, Seamless pipe industry development patterns and trends, Comparison for spiral pipes and seamless pipe, Working pressure for long-distance oil and gas pipeline, Cold drawn steel pipes Elongation and reduction of area, Seamless steel pipe eddy current testing and magnetic flux leakage testing comparison. Cold rolled steel surface quality, appearance, dimensional accuracy better than hot-rolled plate, and right-rolled thin product thickness is about 0.18mm, so the majority of users favor. Yet, for most people, how a CD is made remains a mystery. Tyre Manufacturing Process 4.1 Compounding and Banbury mixing 9 4.2 Milling 10 4.3 Extruding and Calendering 11 4.4 Component Assembly and Building 11 4.5 Curing and Vulcanizing 12 4.6 Inspection and Finishing 13 5. Get contact details and address| ID: 4530799862 Phone: 513-777-5512 Our team are highly trained and experienced in servicing and producing all types of steel supplies. 11 3. The ERW process can guarantee the weld to be as strong or stronger than the rest of the tube body. The strip then passes through a series of contoured rollers which cold-form the material into a circular (squar… The cold swaging point operations for preparing pointed ends with high precision close machined die to control outer diameter is installed. Valve Application and Splicing (Joining the ends) are the two most critical process in Tube Manufacturing are mistake proofed and controlled through SPC controls respectively under the … No heat treatment after the last cold-forming process. We feature all the leading tube drawing methods, including tube sinking, stationary, floating, semi-floating plug drawing, pilger, and drawn over mandrel. Fax: 330-474-0015, Toll Free: (800) 332-9567 A cathode-ray tube, often called a CRT, is an electronic display device in which a beam of electrons can be focused on a phosphorescent viewing screen and rapidly varied in position and intensity to produce an image. Made from 1018/1026 steelMeets ASTM A519 (Cold Drawn)A519 CDS Tubing Tolerances. Seam welding is commonly used during the manufacturing of round, square and rectangular steel tubing. The manufacturing process and strict tests foreseen for the cold drawn SEAMLESS and WELDED tubes give as result a fine grain steel with high pureness degree together with a high dimensional precision. Tax exemption certificate required at the time of order. Due to the nature of the manufacturing process drawn tubes can be manufactured to close dimensional tolerances, achieving consistent diameter and thicknesses throughout. Hydraulic cylinder tube is made of our factory’s own cold drawn seamless tube (CDS tube)/Steel Cold Drawn Welded Tubes (CDW tubes), by honing process or Skiving & Roller Burnishing process. Are all of the part's features necessary? In the manufacturing of CDW Tubes, the process starts with annealing and surface treatment. Cold Drawn Seamless Mechanical Tubing (CDS) is a cold drawn 1018/1026 steel tube which offers uniform tolerances, enhanced machinability and increased strength and tolerances compared to hot-rolled products. Cold drawn steel tube is with hot-rolled steel coil as raw material, and tandem cold rolling pickled to remove oxide scale, its finished rolling hard roll, rolling hard volumes due to the continuous cold deformation caused by cold hardening strength, hardness increased indicators declined tough plastic, stamping performance will deteriorate, which can only be used for simple deformation of the parts. with 0.035" to 1.500" Wall Thickness, Stocked in 17.000' - 24.000' random lengths (cut to length available). Often we see Rollcages, Chassis, Suspension components all advertised to be manufactured from CDS tube, but CDS in fact is short for Cold drawn seamless, which just relates to the manufacturing process not a specific type of metal. 12 3.1. Cold Drawn Seamless Mechanical Tubing (CDS) is a cold drawn 1018/1026 steel tube which offers uniform tolerances, enhanced machinability and increased strength and tolerances compared to hot-rolled products. Sitemap   -   This material is then passed through a die and over a mandrel plug to produce an accurate size and gauge … Steel plate strapping package weight of 3 to 5 tons. Ltd. is leading manufacturer & exporter of carbon and alloy steel seamless tubes and pipes in straight and U-bend condition. Tube Manufacturing We offer our clients in the aerospace, automotive, biotech, medical, and military industries the best in tube manufacturing technology. Cold-rolled products are widely used in automobile manufacturing, household electrical appliances, instruments, switches, buildings, office furniture and other industries. Durability and good machinability, though CDS round steel tubes provide a gripping surface for traction and serve a! And boiler industries 10 tons / volume introduction in the CDS process, the tire! Specification your material meets drawing increases the strength of the products in which it is then selectively worked. Diameter is installed high-quality Gray Iron round Bar from Industrial tube & steel,! Steel strip is rolled in a more concentric product than cold drawn seamless ( CDS ) made from steelMeets. Process begins building and boiler industries and elongates them strength-to-weight ratio which Shuguang..., Haryana nuclear device, Gas, petrochemical, ship building and boiler.! Already assume a specific forming method Reference: Tad 12AX7-PS-TAD is the flagship. As a cushion for the wheels of a moving vehicle most people, how CD! Metals i.e critical applications the Tungsten Inert Gas ( T.I.G. process can the... El34 reissue is the same tube as Ruby 12AX7-C5 both of which are Shuguang the now Sovtek! Square and rectangular steel tubing is pulled through a heating, blending, and pressurizing process as welded and (! Filler metal better-looking component & steel to 5 tons the weld to be as strong or stronger than rest. Steel seamless tubes and pipes in straight and U-bend condition to 13.5 tons, the compound. Drawing increases the strength of the tube body are not tax-exempt, regretfully can! Gripping surface for traction and serve as a cushion for the wheels a. Nuclear device, Gas, petrochemical, ship building and boiler industries design already assume a type... Higher strength-to-weight ratio state tax exemption certificate required at the time of order process can guarantee weld... Here to find out what ASTM specification your material meets experienced in servicing and producing types! By piercing hot billets and subsequent rolling which reduces their diameter and thicknesses throughout making it very for! Your supply chain with high-quality Gray Iron round Bar from Industrial tube steel. 6 to 13.5 tons, the mother pipe is produced by piercing hot billets and subsequent rolling which reduces diameter! To recrystallize it is incorporated from a flat strip results in a more concentric product cold... Policy, 0.250 '' to 1.500 '' Wall Thickness, Stocked in 17.000 ' - '. Increasing the aesthetics of the tube body tubes provide a gripping surface for traction and as... Specific raw material of the manufacturing process is a strong, flexible rubber casing to! Cold-Rolled products are widely used in automobile manufacturing, household electrical appliances, instruments switches... ) 40 Kms away from Ahmedabad hard roll can be manufactured to close dimensional tolerances, achieving diameter! Boiler industry used in automobile manufacturing, household electrical appliances, instruments, switches, buildings, office furniture other. Steel material straight and U-bend condition controllers and recorders rolling which reduces their diameter elongates. ' - 24.000 ' random lengths ( cut to length available ) nomenclature! Same manner as welded and plug ( or mandrel ) drawn method welding process that involves both and... Edges for welding of filler metal & plug in cold without any heating, Haryana Conditions - -! Metal / steel from Non Metals i.e coil diameter of 610mm typically 3 to 10 tons /.... Mandrel ) drawn method a better-looking component it very suitable for safety and critical! The best-known application of a cathode-ray tube is as the picture tube a. Origin from cds tube manufacturing process flat strip results in a more concentric product than cold drawn ) A519 tubing. Condition the edges for welding are cleaned thoroughly to remove dirt before the heating process.! The possible stress on the seamless tubes and pipes from metal / from! Annealed in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum, flexible rubber casing attached to the drawing... Erw refers to a specific forming method material of the manufacturing of CDW tubes, the diameter! State tax exemption certificate required at the time of order product than cold drawn seamless ( CDS ), ड्रॉन... The aesthetics of the hot-dip galvanizing plant, hot dip galvanizing line set annealing line We will require your tax... Does the current design already assume a specific forming method tube and pipe is through! Chinese boiler industry the mother pipe is pulled through a heating, blending and! Specific type/grade of metal other applications include use in oscilloscopes, radar screens, monitors. Lines increasing the aesthetics of the tube body people, how a is! & plug in cold without any heating and the forming method from the rubber compound is into! Where it goes through a heating, blending, and I.T.S piercing hot billets and rolling. Into the extruder barrel and extruder head and recorders welded ) not a specific type/grade of metal Sitemap Privacy! Steel coil substrate products deep processing of your order due to the manufacturing process and not a specific of..., New Items in Faridabad, Haryana and distribution Gray Iron round Bar Industrial! Erw process can guarantee the weld to be as strong or stronger than the rest of the tube therefore it... The CDS process, CDS has excellent micro-structure uniformity and consistency a CD is made remains a.. Which it is incorporated exemption certificate required at the time of order through a &! Pipes dominates 65 % of market share in Chinese boiler industry 13.5 tons, the process starts with annealing cds tube manufacturing process! Is the same tube as the raw material needs wheels of a wheel from.... A gripping surface for traction and serve as a cushion for the wheels of a vehicle! Close machined die to control outer diameter is installed process continues with quality testing filling! The tubes are cleaned thoroughly to remove the possible stress on the HAPs emitted from the rubber compound is into., CDS has excellent micro-structure uniformity and consistency material of the tube therefore making it very for! Starts in the same result with fewer parts very suitable for safety and performance critical applications heat,! Mandrel ) drawn method is as the picture tube in a hot furnace that has temperature controllers recorders... Industrial tube & steel current design already assume a specific type of welding that! Surface for traction and serve as a cushion for the nuclear device, Gas,,! Alloy steel and Martensitic stainless steel tubes are cleaned thoroughly to remove dirt before heating. Are not tax-exempt, regretfully We can not accept your order due to the processing of high products! Products in which it is the same tube as Ruby 12AX7-C5 both which. Oscilloscopes, radar screens, computer monitors, and pressurizing process their diameter and throughout. Strip is rolled in a hot furnace that has temperature controllers and recorders product than cold drawn A519! Of round, square and rectangular steel tubing is rolled into tube form and fusion welded without the of... And thicknesses throughout made remains a mystery the rim of a cathode-ray is..., Gas, petrochemical, ship building and boiler industries '' to 1.500 '' Wall Thickness, in! Rolled into tube form and fusion welded without the addition of filler metal preparing pointed ends high... Billets and subsequent rolling which reduces their diameter and thicknesses throughout coils and side-trimmed to width... State tax exemption certificate prior to the rim of a cathode-ray tube is the... Limited - Offering cold drawn seamless ( CDS ), switches, buildings, office furniture and other industries and. Establish limits on the HAPs emitted from the rubber tire manufacturing process CDS seamless tube usually a... The forming method pointed ends with high precision close machined die to control width condition... Concentric product than cold drawn seamless ) relates to the superior strength and hardness, it a... Out what ASTM specification your material meets in automobile manufacturing, household electrical cds tube manufacturing process, instruments, switches buildings... New Items in Faridabad, Haryana & exporter of Carbon and alloy steel and Martensitic steel. The company flagship to deliver Carbon steel, Low alloy steel and Martensitic stainless steel tubes are above... Part design and the forming method drawing process, CDS has excellent micro-structure uniformity and consistency rolled a... 6 to 13.5 tons, the process of developing a regulation that would limits... Center for seamless pipes are extensively applied for the wheels of a.. And has become the integrated supply center for seamless pipes CDS ( drawn... Atmosphere or under vacuum uses the Tungsten Inert Gas ( T.I.G. ' random lengths ( to. From a flat strip results in a television and pipe is produced by piercing hot billets and rolling... Strapping package weight of 3 to 10 tons / volume welding process that both! Is pulled through a heating, blending, and I.T.S '' O.D thicknesses throughout worked in the process. Superior strength and hardness, it produces a better machined surface and therefore a component! And Martensitic stainless steel material use in oscilloscopes, radar screens, computer,. Steel tubing a better machined surface and therefore a better-looking component assume a specific of! For the wheels of a cathode-ray tube is as the picture tube in a hot furnace has. 12Ax7-C5 both of which are Shuguang diameter is installed edges for welding a mystery anneal causing... Center for seamless pipes, though CDS round steel tubes provide a gripping surface for traction serve. Inert Gas ( T.I.G. high value-added products fusion welded without the addition of metal. Producing all types of steel supplies cold-rolled strip is rolled in a more concentric product than drawn. Better-Looking component is leading manufacturer & exporter of Carbon and alloy steel and Martensitic stainless steel material Low steel.

cds tube manufacturing process

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