At age twenty, gymnastic education will cease and the best students will be chosen to learn an overview of their studies and how they interrelate with each other and the good. Instead, children must look solely to human guardians and the law for guidance. The importance of knowing what is stands out in sharp contrast to the earlier unfounded opinions of the guardians. In the ideal state, matters are overseen by the guardian class – change is to be avoided (perfection having already been obtained), and slaves, and craftsmen and merchants are to know their place. Also, because the dialogue is meant to be a defense of philosophy and an apology of Socrates, the education of real philosophers seems more in tune with the theme of the book than the education of "noble-puppy" guardians. Plato felt that most tales were unsatisfactory because of their content and must be supervised. In the second account of education, Socrates says that the best education should be more like play than work (536d). Glaucon reacts as if he has stepped out of the cave for the first time and does not know what to make of his bright surroundings. Plato also exploits the power of mimetic poetry by using Socrates and the participants as his mouthpieces. Socrates' pedagogical approach with the interlocutors corresponds closely with his vision of the education of the philosopher-kings--an overlap which suggests that the allegory of the cave is representative of true Socratic education. Education Essay website will help you with writing your Education essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations on Education topics. After Socrates unveils the cave analogy, in retrospect the whole dialogue leading up to the cave appears to be an example of Socrates' pedagogical method. Again, Socrates insists that education in philosophy is something to be loved and will result in the satisfaction of eros. . Moreover, a proper training in this kind makes a man quick to perceive any defect or ugliness in art and nature” (chapter 9, page 90). Because they know nothing else, the prisoners assume the shadows to be the extent of reality--but what they see and hear is actually only a small segment of the intelligible world. Plato's beliefs on education, however, are difficult to discern because of the intricacies of the dialogue. They must be steady, courageous, good looking, noble, tough, and quick learners (355). After teaching imagination, Socrates moves onto trust by introducing an education that requires rulers to blindly trust the educative tales they are told. Plato states, “Rhythm and harmony sink deep into the recesses of the soul and take the strongest hold there, bringing that grace of body and mind which is only to be found in one who is brought up in the right way. This time, Glaucon takes the cue and says, "Just like a sculptor, Socrates, you have produced ruling men who are wholly fair" (540c). 504d1) leading toward being. Although music is the most important component in the guardians' education, equilibrium between music and gymnastics is important for the production of moral guardians. Plato considered bravery to be one of the most important attributes a guardian should possess. Instead, knowledge of "the good" must be absolute; Socrates says, "When it comes to good things, no one is satisfied with what is opined to be so but each seeks the things that are" (505d). Story telling is the earliest form of education a child receives from their mothers or other caregivers. The Guardians are picked even before they can acquire language so that they can easily be molded into the perfect warriors. Instead of being told existing tales such as those by Homer and Hesiod, children must be told speeches about real justice, whatever it may be (392c). If children only learn about what is good then they will be able to find the divine nature in themselves. Plato View of Education. Quick, fiery natures suited to music are usually too unstable for courage in the face of war, and trustworthy, brave natures that excel in war are often slow intellectually (503c-d). Radically, Socrates says that anything in youth "assimilates itself to the model whose stamp anyone wishes to give to it" (377b). He shows Glaucon what would happen if a prisoner was unchained and allowed to leave the cave and see reality. Furthermore, he exploits the power of playful images and poetry to convey his ideas. In conclusion, I feel that Plato’s take on education is well developed. Not only is mathematics useful for practical matters, but its abstractness causes students to exercise their intellect and ask questions about what really is. This would insure that the Guardians would not become immoral and unjust. Remarkably, in the guardian's education, no one, not even a judge, was permitted exposure to the truth at this young an age. Socrates' rambling teaching style makes sense in light of his idea that students should come to the truth on their own rather than by force (536e). The grown up people of guardian class will receive the education of science and philosophy. Poetry and music is very important for the Guardians. The Education of the Guardians [Republic II and IV] Plato BOOK II In Book II of the Republic, Plato has his mouthpiece, Socrates, imagine how it is that a state comes into being. I first read this book two years ago. By asserting that the highest virtues are acquired through education and are a matter of refined taste, Socrates combats Glaucon's love for base pleasures. Not only does Socrates lead the interlocutors through the educational process, but Plato, by using a dialogue form for his treatise, allows us, the readers, to be educated along with Glaucon and Adeimantus. The first part of education focused on the content of literature so the second part must focus on the form. Rhythm and harmony touch the soul directly, so if children are surrounded by tales of goodness and never exposed to bad tales, like "noble puppies" they will learn to love what they know (goodness and justice) and hate what they do not know (injustice) (401d-e). It is now clear that Socrates himself is down in the cave, somewhat against his will,2 attempting to help the interlocutors turn from the dark of ignorance to the light of knowledge and realize what is. Literature consists of stories being told that are actual events that took place or fictitious ones. Glaucon and Adeimantus are participants in Plato’s dialogues. Socrates says that careful crafting of tales is important because they are the most effective method of educating guardians' souls. Likening the guardians to philosophical "noble puppies," philosophically educating the guardians by sheltering them, attacking the use of poetry, and telling the guardians that their education and childhood was a dream (414d) are all so implausible that they strike a cord suggesting that the opposite is true. This will insure that theGuardians will be brave. After convincing Glaucon that escaping the cave and becoming a philosopher is advantageous, Socrates returns to more practical political matters. When told that his experience in the cave was not entirely real, he would rebel--and not without reason (515d). We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. While the dramatic context of the dialogue makes facets of the Republic difficult to grasp, in the case of education, it also provides the key to locating and understanding Socrates' true vision of education. Lastly in his discussion of educative music, Socrates addresses the appropriate melody of tales with Glaucon. As an adult you should feel free to read what you want since you have already been shaped. .” Plato felt that literature is very influential to individuals. Only simple instruments such as the lyre, cither, and pipe are permitted (399d). Once they see the good itself, they must be compelled, each in his turn, to use it as a pattern for ordering city, private men, and themselves for the rest of their lives. Finally, Socrates arrives at knowledge of what is. They are chosen from among the ranks of the auxiliaries, and are also known as philosopher-kings. In order for there to be a just state, there must be a balance between the different types of people, namely; reason dominated, spirit dominated and appetite dominated people. And, lifting up the brilliant beams of their souls, they must be compelled to look toward that which provides light for everything. The primary object of education, Plato says, is to turn the eye, which the soul already possesses, to the light. We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. Furthermore, gods cannot be said to punish (unless it is for the punished person's benefit), change shape/form, or lie. He acknowledges that his proposed regime and its philosopher-kings are implausible and, instead, the real goal is to establish an ordered, just regime within oneself (592). Censorship is needed for children as Plato says. I will use chapters 8 and 9 for my discussion. Next, he teaches about thought through his discussion of the philosopher-kings' education and dialectics. Plato regards education as a means to achieve justice, both individual justice and social justice. The country must then take land from neighboring countries in order to be able to accommodate all of the citizens. Instead, they must escape the cave, be educated in the good through philosophy (521c), and then return to the cave to rule and enlighten others (519d). Plato on education. I now understand that educators and parents do not want their easily impressionable children to read books that could teach unjust or morally wrong principles. Play must have serious intentions; poetry must only imitate what is good, pointing beyond the petty troubles of men to the eternal pursuit of justice and philosophy, and children must not be allowed to play with dialectics before they are able to do so responsibly for fear they will be corrupted and become lawless (538). Socrates' sharing in the educational experience is an effective pedagogical method that benefits both the student and the teacher. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through t… Literature with topics such as Gods against Gods and misdeeds were untruthful. They show unjust men as happy, just men as unhappy, injustice as profitable, and justice as being someone else's good and one's own loss. Glaucon wants this illusive, erotic knowledge that Socrates dangles before him, but just as his interest is sparked, Socrates tells him it is too complicated, which arouses Glaucon even more (506e). Through his refutation of the opinions of Glaucon, Adeimantus, Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus, Socrates battles the city's conventions. In that way you can better discern what each is naturally directed towards" (537a). They need to be gentle when they are dealing with the citizens of the state. The tales deemed unfit for a child to hear would be discarded. Socrates, however, still recognizes the danger of the full truth. Through this powerful image of the cave, Socrates shows Glaucon the good and suggests how it is to be obtained. The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to excel. Learning to love fine things and hate ugly things as a child will help them appreciate reasonable speech and find pleasure in living moderately when grown (402a). Dialectics are also to be studied. Only modes that express traits a guardian should hold will be left uncensored. One of Socrates’ final commandments regarding the living arrangements of the guardian class is that children, born from the couplings held during the festivals, shall be considered children of the entire community, with no children knowing the identity of their parents, and vice-versa (Plato 92). The second part of education would be dramatic recitation. Plato simply states here that dirges, laments, modes of sorrow or softness, and any musical setting implying drunkenness, effeminacy, and inactivity are to be kept from the Guardians in training. The most explicit account of education arises after Glaucon questions the moderate and plain lifestyle required in Socrates' just city "of speech" (369a). From this, it seems that education does not make men a certain way, as in the first account. In this article we discover what Plato has to say about music and its impact on humans. He says that these poets' tales include bad lies, which further unrealistic images of the gods and heroes (377e). As soon as Socrates allows fineries, however, the city quickly becomes rife with potential trouble. Although Socrates says potential guardians must have a certain disposition, the impressionability of the ideal nature suggests that they must only be bodily suited to the physical aspects of the job since they will be instilled with the other necessary qualities through education. By presenting them with numerous different points of view, he teaches them to look beyond convention and their long-held convictions, and be open to new, foreign ideas. Latest education news, comment and analysis on schools, colleges, universities, further and higher education and teaching from the Guardian, the world's leading liberal voice Moreover, Socratic education is not just meant to educate civic rulers--it is meant to educate men to be excellent rulers of themselves. The children must learn that God cannot take on different shapes or fly around at night to deceive them such as some stories state. Physical training is an important aspect because an educated Guardian would be of no use if he were unable to protect and serve. The philosopher's descent into the cave hearkens back the first line of the book, "I went down to the Piraeus yesterday with Glaucon" (327a). The new importance of truth and what is also contrasts with the first account's use of lies in educating the guardians. In accordance with the progressive, playful, philosophical education suggested by the cave analogy and the philosopher-kings' education, Socrates uses numerous varying and often conflicting ideas and images (among which is the first account of education) to gradually guide his pupils toward a personal realization of knowledge and philosophy. This paper will first examine the dialogue's two explicit accounts of education, addressing both their similarities and differences. Socrates says. Socrates skillfully explains until Glaucon grasps the concept and is able to make an account of it for himself. Socrates then spontaneously progresses to the cave analogy in order to explain the process of coming to know the good by means of education. Since God is perfection, then he would not need to take on other forms. The previous account of education, however, is incomplete because gymnastics and music only teach habits by example (521e-522b). Perhaps he emphasizes the importance of a certain nature to add an aura of prestige to education. He lets them be founders, thereby allowing them a vested interest in the discussion. Guardians are created when the country begins to be too small for it’s inhabitants. (Remember, he operated his own school at Athens!) By hearing such tales, youths will learn the importance of unity and will be disinclined to fight amongst themselves when they are grown. Medicine, Socrates says, is only welcome as a means for curing easily-fixed illnesses and should never be used to keep those unable to work alive (406). Education in music (which includes speeches) begins with the telling of tales in the earliest years of childhood because that is when people are most pliable. Glaucon protests the unfairness of forcing the liberated philosophers to go back into the cave (519d), but Socrates insists that, although it is unappealing, philosophers will serve the state because they are indebted for their own enlightenment, love knowledge, and accept that the good of the city is more important than their own happiness. The first account of education, however, is not included in the dialogue without purpose. Politeia; Latin: De Republica) is a Socratic dialogue, authored by Plato around 375 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man. The hero Achilles must be absent from all tales, because children cannot see lamenting or gross displays of immoderate emotion glorified for fear they will adopt the practices as their own (388). Like the well-educated guardian, a good judge will be "a late learner of what injustice is" (409b). Additionally, tales cannot include displays of laughter (389a). The first account of education can be read in light of this ideal. Of course, this is the way mathematics is studied in most universities today. When he can distinguish ugliness he will be able to ignore it and be able to maintain his divine nature. Rhythm and mode would now have to be censored just as the poem itself had to. Given the dramatic context of the dialogue (that Socrates is educating the interlocutors), I would assume that he believes more in the importance of education rather than that of nature. After being compelled to expound on the details of the city (including communism and gender equality), Socrates admits that the city should be ruled by philosopher-kings (503b) and, furthermore, that the previous account of the guardians' education was incomplete (504b). Like the divided line, the dialogue has different meanings and purposes on different levels, making it dangerous to believe everything Socrates says. Plato, the Greek philosopher, considered music special and devotes broadened attention to the subject in his works Republic and in Laws. I thought it was wrong for libraries to censor certain material. Quality Education paper writing help. Dramatic form is when a poet tells a story by acting out different characters in a story. Education is not what the professions of certain men assert it to be. By subtly directing the discussion through questions, Socrates allows the ignorant prisoners to unchain themselves and realize the truth. The primary education the Guardians is started after they have been chosen. No longer is Glaucon averse to the austere lifestyle of the guardians, because now the guardians are possessors of the most illustrious power. Unable to distinguish between good and bad and, therefore, garner examples of how not to behave from bad tales, children will only use bad examples to justify their own bad behavior (391e). For the most part, each one spends his time in philosophy, but when his turn comes, he drudges in politics and rules for the city's sake, not as though he were doing a thing that is fine, but one that is necessary. Plato view of education is for the good of the individual and for the safety of the state. What is this subject? Instead of using irony, Socrates uses images to teach the interlocutors. Get an answer for 'Describe the education of the guardians as it is presented in books 2 and 3 of Plato's Republic.' Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. Thus, the young must not be allowed to toy with debate because they will undoubtedly misuse the art of dialectics, leading to the dissolution of their beliefs and the defamation of philosophy. For the reader, the image of the cave quickly evokes the memory of Socrates' earlier false tales and noble lies, and it is evident that the new education is meant to free the prisoners from their false opinions and convictions, as opposed to chaining them within the cave as did the earlier education. Socrates says, "Don't use force in training the children in the studies, but rather play. This is why poets who use this form will not be allowed to tell their tales to the Guardians. Socrates says, "Imitations, if they are practiced continually from youth onwards, become established as habits and nature, in body and sounds and in thought" (395d). The implication that children can be shaped completely by education fits with the earlier suggestion that guardians are not meant to have a particular moral nature before their education. Instead, the two accounts of education must be patched together and evaluated in relation to each other and the dramatic context of the dialogue in order to discover Socrates' preferred method of education. Instead, education serves to identify those who are capable of philosophizing and helps to strengthen the characters of those who are capable. I now feel that censorship is sometimes needed after reading Plato’s views on censorship. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through the pedagogical method he uses with Glaucon and Adeimantus. Furthermore, it is insufficient to merely have opinions about the good. They presumably assert that they put into the soul knowledge that isn't in it, as through they were putting sight into blind eyes…but the present argument, on the other hand…indicates that this power is in the soul of each and that the instrument with which each learns--just as an eye is not able to turn toward the light from the dark without the whole body--must be turned around from that which is coming into being together with the whole soul until it is able to endure looking at that which is and the brightest part of that which is (518c). If he tried to look at his new surroundings and the sun directly after leaving the dark cave, he would be blinded and would want to return to the comfort of his familiar past surroundings (515e). Although Socrates found it necessary to drag Glaucon out of the cave and into the light using images, Socrates still prefers that his students do not simply accept the truth, but come to it on their own. Socrates says, "It must also be given gymnastic in many studies to see whether it will be able to bear the greatest studies, or whether it will turn out to be a coward" (503e). Plato’s Guardian Class Guardians are put into place to defend morality and rule society because they know the truth and posses the knowledge and wisdom of true forms. They must be fierce in order to go to war or ward off invasion. With regards to censorship, I always felt that any form of censorship was wrong. Certain rhythms and modes would convey a specific mood or feeling. Socrates describes a cave in which humans are chained from birth facing a wall. Socrates says, "Now, the true city is in my opinion the one we just described-a healthy city, as it were. Moreover, children are expected to accept whatever they are told with little free-thought. He says. Guardian. When Socrates introduces the cave analogy, one cannot help recognizing the similarities between it and his own actions in the dialogue. The first part of their education would be on literature. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Plato felt that one was put into a social group by their own development of their rational intellects. Ideal Characteristics of Plato’s Guardians The characterisitics of the ideal guardian is summarized in those words by Socrates in the second book of the Republic : “[H]e who is to be a really good and noble guardian of the State will require to unite in himself philosophy and spirit and swiftness and strength.
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