Another common postharvest problem of citrus is sour rot, caused by the yeastlike fungus, Geotrichum candidum. A greatly enhanced germination is stimulated by the ascorbic acid, whereas the citric acid has no stimulating effect. Gas chromatogram of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere surrounding wounded oranges. These effects are shown in Figure 13. It was then incubated with 0.125 mol of NH4CO3 overnight at 4°C and the antigen extracted after freeze-drying of the filtrate. The entomogenous Hirsutella citriformis, a destructive parasite of brown planthoppers on the Solomon Islands, was colonized by Calcarisporium (Cladobotryum) ovalisporum; because this fungus requires sterilized host hyphae to grow on agar media, it also may be dependent on the fungal metabolite mycotrophein (Rombach and Roberts 1987). Clinical Research Centre for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization, Sagamihara Hospital, 18-1 Sakuradai, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-0392, Japan, Chiyako Oshikata, Naomi Tsurikisawa, Akemi Saito, Takahiro Tsuburai, Hiroyuki Mitomi, Hiroshi Yasueda & Kazuo Akiyama, Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Science, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158–8501, Japan, Centre for Fungal Consultation, 5F 4-8-5, Chuo, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0051, Japan, You can also search for this author in Although human infections with P. digitatum are considered rare, it appears that this organism can be very virulent and resistant to antimycotics. CAS  Alternaria species can cause black center rot of oranges and mandarins. (2013). 1990, 83: 701-704. The investigators believe that weed pollens with high sugar contents are likely to lead to further stimulation of the pathogen on fruit in the orchard (Fourie and Holz, 1998). His asthma was of the non-atopic type and moderate, as defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma Guidelines 2002. Cookies policy. The development of the CO-sensitive Monilinia fructicola in peaches was completely inhibited in cold storage by the addition of CO to a low-O2 atmosphere (4%); however, a normal rate of rot development was resumed once the fruits were transferred to air at 20°C (Kader et al., 1982). Management of crop health is in fact essential to agriculture. Emphasis on microbiological spectra, patient outcome and prognostic factors. Some individuals may experience asthma symptoms or allergic reactions, while others may … The antagonistic yeast, Pichia guilliermondii, which is effective in controlling a wide variety of postharvest diseases in citrus fruits, apples and peaches, has been shown to induce enhanced levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) in citrus fruit peel (Wisniewski and Wilson, 1992), indicating the induction of a defensive response. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. In that connection, a lot of components are used to create new food supplements, genetically engineered foods, and great food alternatives. Written informed consent was obtained from the kin of the patient for publication of this Case Report and any accompanying images. These genetic elements have been implicated in azole resistance in many filamentous fungi due to increased expression of the target gene by increasing promoter activity. The panel included Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola, all of which cause relevant economic losses worldwide as a result of affecting harvested fruits. The ascomycete Letendraea helminthicola parasitizes the hyphomycete Helminthosporium velutinum (Ellis and Ellis 1988). The biotrophic Debaryomyces hansenii can control penetration of citrus fruit by Penicillium digitatum (Droby et al. Antigen-specific precipitating antibodies to Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium digitatum in the patient’s serum (a) were found by Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion testing with A. flavus and P. digitatum antigens. No A. flavus or P. digitatum and no bacteria or tubercle bacilli were detected in cultures of sputum or bronchial lavage fluids. Chen KY, Ko SC, Hsueh PR, Luh KT, Yang PC: Pulmonary fungal infection. Chest. It is interesting to note that volatile compounds evolved from diced peels of various Citrus spp. Penicillium ascomycetous fungiare microscopic organisms that are of major importance in the natural environment, in the production of foods and in the pharmaceutical industry. Germination was reduced by both higher and lower concentrations of the mixture of volatiles (Fig. 1978). 1995, 61: 1323-1330. We diagnosed the patient with lung aspergilloma and treated with itraconazole (100 mg/day) for 3 months. Penicillium spore germination is also stimulated by the addition of oil derived from the rind of orange, lemon, grapefruit or other citrus fruits (French et al., 1978). Sphaeronaemella helvellae, Trichoderma viride, Exobasidiellum species, and others (Vakili 1985) are efficient antagonists of pathogens, such as Fusarium verticillioides (synonym F. moniliforme sensu stricto), Cochliobolus (Helminthosporium) carbonum, and Colletotrichum graminicola involved in stalk rot of corn. In many cases, these microorganisms, which grow rapidly and colonize wounds, have been hypothesized to act by competing with postharvest wound pathogens, for space and nutrients (see the chapter on Biological Control). It was identified as P. digitatum and had the form of a spreading organism with a mealy, grey-green colour that turned olive green in culture. 10.1094/PHYTO.1999.89.9.716. Eckert and Ratnayake (1994) found that a mixture of limonene, acetaldehyde, ethanol, CO2 and other volatile compounds emanating from wounded oranges induced germination of P. digitatum conidia on water agar. from this patient have a brush-like appearance; the spores of Terms and Conditions, From sputum culture only one fungus was isolated repeatedly on potato-dextrose agar in large quantities. This fungus was confirmed to be P. digitatum by molecular identification. The possibility of using CO atmosphere for decay suppression during storage has been studied for various commodities. Partial sequences of the β-tubulin gene determined by using the primers Bt2a and Bt2b [5] underwent BLAST analysis at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information. MC Lagunas-Solar, in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 2014. Kader et al. Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Hollis RJ, Jones RN, SENTRY Participants Group: Antifungal activities of posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole compared to those of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 239 clinical isolates and Aspergillus spp. Testing the effect of the juice components on spore germination revealed that of the sugars within the juice (glucose, sucrose and fructose), glucose is the best stimulant. The fact that the average quantity of volatile compounds emanating from wounded fruits was 75 times greater than that from non-injured fruit may explain the lower germination of P. digitatum spores on water agar exposed to sound citrus fruits. However, when a comparable amount of isolated lemon peel oil was topically applied to the washed wounds, 92% of the inoculated wound sites did develop complete green mold symptoms (Arimoto et al., 1995). Barmore CR, Brown GE, 1980. The major components of this mixture were the terpenes, limonene, ∝-pinene, β-myrcene, and sabinene, accompanied by acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethylene and CO2, as identified by gas chromatography (Fig. Fungal spores can rapidly degrade this acid to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, which is responsible for the accelerated germination. was tested. Once the citrus Penicillium became established in the apple, it progressed at a higher rate than that of the apple Penicillium. These studies indicated that lemon epicarp oil, with the limonene removed, promoted the production of green mold symptoms on only 28% of the wounds, suggesting that limonene was one facilitator of green mold formation on wounded fruits. Google Scholar, The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: However, none of these patients had antigen-specific precipitating antibodies to P. digitatum in tests of antigen extracted from patient’ sputum culture fluid or sputum. Penicillium The ability of an optimized PUVC (248 nm) radiation field on oranges inoculated with Penicillium digitatum spores and exposed to a well-tolerated dose of 2000 mJ cm−2 is shown in Figure 12. (5) It may cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allergic alveolitis in susceptible individuals. Spores of Rhizopus stolonifer, which causes a watery soft rot in many fruits and vegetables, also need nutrient additives in the water in order to germinate and infect carrots (Menke et al., 1964). 2. Article  This phenomenon explains why siderophores, which are chelating agents with a high affinity for this metal, that are formed on the banana surface by bacteria, under conditions of iron deficiency (Neilands, 1981), stimulate and accelerate germination of Colletotrichum spores and the formation of appresoria (McCracken and Swinburne, 1979). To our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary infection with P. digitatum. When added to the fungus conidia during the 4 weeks prior to the picking-ripe stage the exudates significantly increased the aggressiveness of the pathogen on plum and nectarine fruits. Treatment with this broad range of antimycotics and antibiotics did not slow the growth of the cavity: its fluid content continued to increase, and invasive consolidation and pleural effusion developed (Figure 1e, December 2005; 1f, January 2006). Since little or no germination of P. digitatum occurred on water agar alone, it was assumed that substrate nutrition was the determinant of spore germination and an important factor in host specificity of the pathogen to citrus fruits. G. lucidum extract showed higher activity against S. aureus and B. cereus than the antibiotics ampicillin and streptomycin in a study by Heleno et al. Cavitation refers to a physical process in which increased UV penetration is obtained due to the multiple scattering of photons from diffuse reflecting surfaces including waxy fruit surfaces. statement and Here, we report a case of fatal pneumonia due to P. digitatum infection, as confirmed by repeated examination of cultured sputum. The patient’s medication regimen was changed to voriconazole (400 mg/day), amphotericin B (10 mg/day), and fluconazole (400 mg/day), in addition to itraconazole (200 mg/day) and antibacterials. Although human infection with P. digitatum is considered rare, it appears that this organism can be very virulent and resistant to antimycotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. It appeared that oils produced from different citrus fruits might differ in. The NEAPP employing Ar gas had a high electron density on the order of 1015cm−3. Penicillium digitatum is widely distributed in soils throughout the world. Spread of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum during contact between citrus fruits. 2. 1997, 35: 3335-3337. Holmes LG, Eckert JW: Sensitivity of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum to postharvest citrus fungicides in California. GEORGE N. AGRIOS, in Plant Pathology (Fifth Edition), 2005. Effect of orange oil suspension in 1% water agar on germination of conidia of Penicillium digitatum. Examination of the various oil component activities revealed that nonanal and citral were the most effective compounds. Google Scholar. In addition, the yeast Candida oleophila was approved for postharvest decay control in citrus and apples under the trade name Aspire. Penicillium digitatum is used as a biological tool during the commercial production of latex agglutination kits. Penicillium marneffei infection found in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Thus, our studies indicate that the mode of action of fludioxonil in P. digitatum is probably the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that stimulates glycerol synthesis in sensitive and MR isolates. This acid is involved in the active transport of iron in various microorganisms and reduces the iron level around the spores on the surface of the banana (Harper and Swinburne, 1979; Harper et al., 1980). (1978) showed that the addition of CO (5 or 10%) to a low-O2 atmosphere (4%) reduced the incidence and severity of the gray mold decay in Botrytis cinerea-inoculated tomatoes at their mature-green or pink stage. It is also found in paint and compost piles. their compositions, hence the relative differences among the stimulating or suppressing activities of oils produced from different sources. In a recent study, Vazirian et al. Fungal resistance to these chemicals, along with consumer pressure for safer control methods is providing the impetus for alternative treatments based on generally regarded as safe compounds in combination with heat treatments and biological control agents, such as naturally occurring bacteria and yeasts. Co, 386-392. Also, significant reduction of citrus green mold (caused by Penicillium digitatum) was obtained by treating the fruit with antagonistic yeasts (Fig. Limonene peak shown was attenuated 16 times. Penicillium digitatum is widely distributed in soils throughout the world. Its fluid content increased, and consolidation appeared around it (Figure 1d, October 2005). In his case, antimycotics were ineffective in treating the lung involvement. One such yeast, Candida saitoana, controlled postharvest decay of apple fruit by inducing systemic resistance in apple fruit while at the same time increasing chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities in the fruit. On the other hand, washing wounded lemon fruit peel (epicarp) was found to greatly suppress P. digitatum infection, when the fruit was inoculated with fungal spores, so that only 2% of the fruit showed green mold symptoms. 1x is the concentration typical of the natural mixture measured surrounding wounded oranges. Citral exhibits strong antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum. Partial sequences of the beta-tubulin gene were determined by using the primers Bt2a and Bt2b for PCR amplification and sequencing and underwent a BLAST search at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information, these results confirmed that the isolated fungus was P. digitatum. In addition, C. guilliermondii is lethal on the tomato root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.69, While B. cereus biocontrol properties rely on zwittermicin A, multiple modes of action support the biocontrol activity of C. guilliermondii. Passalora personata also can be parasitized by Cladosporiella cercosporicola (Esquivel-R. 1984). This led to a delay in diagnosis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole against A. flavus or Aspergillus fumigatus are lower than those against Penicillium spp. Figure 3. CAS  Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. 9. A mold allergy can make you cough, make your eyes itch and cause other symptoms that make you miserable. Appl Environ Microbiol. Computed tomography 2 years after initial presentation (April 2005) showed that the cavity was increasing in size and contained a fungus ball (b). Penicillium rot of pineapple was reduced considerably by spraying the fruit with nonpathogenic strains of the pathogen. This defect is not always obvious externally, but manifests as an internal blackening of the fruit. Lyratzopoulos G, Ellis M, Nerringer R, Denning DW: Invasive infection due to Penicillium species other than P. marneffei. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens that can cause death [2]. People are commonly exposed to the spores of this airborne pathogen every day. J Clin Microbiol. Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. We diagnosed invasive pulmonary penicilliosis due to P. digitatum. However, another promoting factor was isolated from the oil and was identified as prangolarin by spectrometric analysis. The proteins were closely related … A conidial suspension of this fungus with carboxymethyl cellulose sprayed on P. personata prevented secondary spread of the pathogen under moist conditions (Mitchell et al. Google Scholar. Sometimes the food people consume can be unsafe. 1. Penicillium species are among the most common fungi in the environment and are usually considered non-pathogenic to humans [1]. J Infection. 10.1097/00007611-199006000-00029. EPA Company Number 93546. Spores of Penicillium digitatum, the green mold fungus which attacks only citrus fruit, germinate to a minor extent in pure water, whereas the addition of fruit juice greatly accelerates germination (Pelser and Eckert, 1977). The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Computed tomographic imaging of the chest at the level of the aortic arch in 2003, two years before dyspnea onset, showed a small cavity in the left upper lobe due to emphysematous change (a). The yeast Clavispora lusitaniae 146 has previously been shown to efficiently protect lemons from green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum. On first presentation in April 2005 to our hospital, he did not have asthma exacerbation or increased sputum production, but his dyspnoea on effort was graded 2 on the Hugh–Jones scale. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary infection with P. digitatum. Hawksworth (1981a) gives a long list of additional mycoparasites growing on conidial fungi. Bars indicate standard errors. This induction was exhibited in a transient increase in the enzymatic activity which started 24 h after the application of the antagonist, and reached a maximum 48 or 96 h after the treatment. The efficacy of thin-film diamond coated electrodes (DiaCell 101) for disinfection of water artificially contaminated with Penicillium digitatum and Pseudomonas spp. In comparison to other detection assays, the latex agglutionation assay exceeds the … Furthermore, lemons infected with Phytophthora citrophthora, Geotrichum candidum or P. digitatum also emanated volatiles that induced germination of P. digitatum spores on water agar (Eckert et al., 1992; Eckert and Ratnayake, 1994). The addition of CO to the atmosphere results in the suppression of various fungi sensitive to the gas, such as Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum and Monilinia fructicola. The fungicide sensitivity of 166 isolates to imazalil (IMZ), thiabendazole (TBZ), sodium ortho-phenylphenate (SOPP), and pyrimethanil (PYR) were determined. ], Ganoderma sp. The fungi gain entry if fruit is damaged during handling and storage, and then decay can spread from fruit to fruit. Penitrem is produce by species such as Penicillium cyclopium and Penicillium commune. (B) Apples 3 months after they had been wounded and inoculated with fungi Penicillium and Botrytis with (right) or without (left) treatment with the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (BioSave 110). A Manual of the Penicillia. Others of this species are used in the food making industry specifically in the production of cheese. At a concentration typical of the natural mixture surrounding wounded oranges (1 x concentration), 45% of the spores germinated on water agar. Case presentation Penicillium, a genus of ascomycetous fungi, has a long history of interaction with mankind; sometimes beneficial and sometimes harmful, the genus Penicillium contains over 300 species and remains poorly understood by the general public despite its widespread medical use. Control of postharvest rots in citrus relies on cool storage in combination with the application of coatings containing fungicides, such as benomyl, thiabendazole, imazalil, guazatine, sodium o-phenylphenate (SOPP), or pyrimethanil. At 25–30 °C, fruit will rot completely in 4 or 5 days, and the disease can spread by contact. Fungal rots are one of the main causes of large economic losses and deterioration in the quality and nutrient composition of fruits during the postharvest stage. 2001, 120: 177-10.1378/chest.120.1.177. Abstract The association of cereals with fungi cannot be disregarded as their manifestation in our foods poses serious health risks. In this study, 41 over-expressed and 84 repressed proteins in P. digitatum after 1.0 μL/mL of citral exposure for 30 min were identified by the iTRAQ technique. Penicillium is among the five most common genera in the outdoor and indoor fungi aerosols {2649, 2747, 2759}. 1968, New York: Hafner Publ. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Thus, the presence of citrus juice with the appropriate acidity level can determine both the germination rate and the germ tube growth and, in turn, the rate of fungal development and the incubation period of the disease (Pelser and Eckert, 1977) (Fig. This stimulation was attributed to the permeation of anthranilic acid from the inner tissues to the fruit surface. Applying mixtures of O2 and CO to B. cinerea-inoculated apples inhibited lesion development, and the inhibition was closely related to the decrease in the O2 level from 8% to 2% (Sommer et al., 1981). He died in February 2006 from progressive renal failure. The discomycete Bisporella pallescens (synonym Calycella monilifera) fruits densely on the conspicuous black conidial patches of Bispora antennata on tree stumps (Jahn 1968). Hsu JH, Lee MS, Dai ZK: Life-threatening airway obstruction caused by penicilliosis in a leukemic patient. Naomi Tsurikisawa. Here, we report a case of fatal pneumonia due to P. digitatum infection, as confirmed by repeated examination of cultured sputum. PubMed Google Scholar. The patient’s vital capacity (VC) of 2.64 L, percentage VC of 85.7%, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 1.09 L, and percentage FEV1 of 50.9% in August 2005 was lower than his VC of 3.01 L,%VC of 95.6%, FEV1 of 1.12 L,%FEV1 of 49.6% in 2003. 1989); in high concentrations, the parasite inhibits the conidial germination and hyphal growth of its host, apparently through competition for nutrients. These factors might have facilitated the infection. For example, yeast treatments reduced postharvest rotting of peach and apple. A similar effect occurred on Penicillium italicum conidia also. [12]. This area was suggested to be the location in which the host defense reaction occurred (Wild and Wilson, 1996). We found antigen-specific precipitating antibodies to A. flavus and P. digitatum in the patient’s serum (Figure 3a) at April 2005.and pleural effusion at November 2005 by using Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion testing [4] with A. flavus and P. digitatum antigens (HollisterStier, Spokane, WA, USA). PubMed  To extract the antigen from the sputum culture, we added 1.5 mL of Glass Beads (Biospec Product, OK, USA) to the patient’s sputum and crushed the mixture with a Mini-Beadbeater (Biospec Product, OK, USA). Fig. Penicillium species are one of the most common causes of spoilage of fruits and vegetables.For example, Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum are frequent causes of rot of citrus fruits, while Penicillium expansum is known to spoil apples and {798, 2539,3090}. When added to air, CO increased the CO2 and ethylene production rates and, in parallel, hastened the ripening of mature-green tomatoes, while the addition of CO to a low – O2 atmosphere had no or very little effect on these physiological responses. Germination of various fungal spores may be stimulated by solutes that diffuse from within the fruit or other plant organs into the water film over the infection site. 10.1159/000237283. No increased sputum production was present. It was also found that if rot caused by P. digitatum progressed through an apple and came into contact with a damaged region, it developed around the damage site leaving a halo of uninfected tissue. Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum candidum are The fruiting structures (penicilli) of Penicillium from this patient have a brush-like appearance; the spores of Penicillium digitatum are typically elliptical under the microscope. Pulmonary infections with fungi, including Penicillium species, are associated with much higher mortality rates in patients with nosocomial infections or infections complicating organ failure [11].
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