4. infructescence, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species, NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Distribution K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 U4 Z Images. Misc. of ref. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. Useful trees of tropical North America. robusta is a medium to large tree with a dense crown and long, spreading branches when grown in open ground. Distribution: Eastern Australia. Handbook of Energy Crops. Duke, J.A. Muell., E. robusta Smith and E. urophylla S.T. ex Maiden, E. citriodora Hook., E. raveretiana F. Schubert TH, Whitesell CD, 1985. Eucalyptus robusta usually occurs in swampy sites. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. Sax DF, 2002. ; [B]. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11(1):49-57. The resulting monocultures have raised concerns about loss of animal biological diversity, through loss of acorns that mammals and birds feed on, absence of hollows that in oak trees provide shelter and nesting sites for birds and small mammals and for bee colonies, as well as lack of downed trees in managed plantations (Sax, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; I3N-Brazil, 2014). ; 102 pl. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Incidence of mycorrhiza in nursery and Eucalyptus spp. fuelwood in Florida—a summary report. 4. Juvenile leaves disjunct, ovate, glossy green. In: Santalum freycinetianum var. + 3 maps. 32]; Many ref. Binomial name: Eucalyptus robusta First described: 1793, Smith Distribution: Qld & NSW. Studies of its use in plantations as a potential source of woody biomass to generate electricity have also been conducted (King and Krugman, 1980; Schubert and Whitesell, 1985). When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. In: Harden GJ, ed. ; 13 ref. This species occurs in swamps and alongside estuaries in a narrow coastal strip, usually within a few kilometres of the ocean, from Rockhampton, Queensland south to Jervis Bay, New South Wales. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Forestry. Eucalypts for planting., Ed. 159, 51-59; 27 ref. Nativity and distribution Eucalyptus robusta is native to Queensland and New South Wales (Australia) but cultivated elsewhere. Range Exp. Plantations of exotic Eucalyptus species Although a number of exotic Eucalyptus species have been screened for reforestation (and afforestation) in PNG in different localities (Figures 3 and 4) (East Sepik, Open Bay, Western Highland, Bulolo), the two most successful species are E. robusta and E. grandis in the swampy areas of PNG Highlands. Auckland, New Zealand: Groome Pöyry Ltd. Zobel BJ, Van Wyk G, Stahl P, 1987. PSW-176, ii + 13 pp. APNI* Description: Tree to 40 m high; bark smooth, white or grey, shedding in large plates or flakes. 1980. 2. Computer index No. Streets RJ, 1962. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. vešlusis eukaliptas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Mirtinių šeimos medieninis augalas (Eucalyptus robusta), paplitęs Australijoje. Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, Turner JD, 1984. Holliday I, Watton G, 1989. In Sri Lanka and India, a well-known pathogen of tea Cercosporella theae [Calonectria theae] causes leaf spots and sunken purple cankers on young stems of E. robusta, while in Australia leaf spots on this species have been attributed to Readeriella mirabilis (see review in Fenton et al., 1977). Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameter. I3N-Brasil, 2014. pp. (1797) 283. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Industrial application of micropropagation. Brooker MIH, Kleinig DA, 1983. Their machining, seasoning and related characteristics. Blake. Fenton R, Roper RE, Watt GR, 1977. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Marcar NE, 1993. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Booth TH, Nix HA, Hutchinson MF, Jovanovic T, 1988. N. Holl. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, PROTA, 2014. Special areas in Hawaii: Wahiawa, Aiea, Kalopa, Tantalus, Pepeekeo. 15. 322pp. See more ideas about Eucalyptus robusta, Eucalyptus, Planting flowers. Description and pathogenicity of Cylindrocladium ovatum sp. Common fuelwood crops: a handbook for their PROTA, 2014. PSW-10 pp. Doran JC, Turnbull JW, 1997. Eucalyptus seeana Maiden APNI* . Eucalyptus plantations have often replaced oak woodlands in regions such as California, Spain and Portugal. ; 1 pl. Robusta eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta), which is also known as swamp mahogany and grows in USDA zones 10 and 11, was introduced to Hawaii from its native Australia in the 1880s. No. The only other consistently rough-barked species in this group is E. botryoides, which prefers similar coastal but less wet habitats (Boland et al., 1984). pp. By the 1990s, about 1.8 million ha of Eucalyptus species were planted in Africa, and in Madagascar about 151,000 ha of E. robusta were established (PROTA, 2014). Flora of New South Wales Vol. Bertrand A, 1992. Pulping properties of the wood are given by Fenton et al. swamp mahogany šaltinis Valstybinės lietuvių kalbos komisijos… Evans J, 1982. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Econ. Eucalyptus robusta / Wikipedia (2) Eucalyptus robusta / AgroForestryTree Database (3) Studies on the chemical constituents of Eucalyptus robusta Sm. In: Flora of Australia. In: Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule. The tendency of older trees to shed large limbs in strong winds makes it an undesirable selection for areas affected by typhoons (Jacobs, 1981). First introduced in the 1880's, it … Species Eucalyptus rigens Brooker & Hopper – eucalyptus P: Species Eucalyptus rigidula Maiden P: Species Eucalyptus risdonii Hook. Medicinal plants of east and southeast Asia. Host plants: Eucalyptus sp. Truck beds, weather-boards for houses, flooring, interior trim and panelling are made from E. robusta (Skolmen, 1974; Durst, 1988). However, seedlings are unable to tolerate frost, and hard frosts are harmful to young saplings less than 2 m tall. Washington, DC, USA. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 308 pp. (1977).E. 2nd ed. Webb DB, Wood PJ, Smith JP, Henman GS, 1984. Firewood crops. Species Eucalyptus rigens Brooker & Hopper – eucalyptus P: Species Eucalyptus rigidula Maiden P: Species Eucalyptus risdonii Hook. (1977). ; 36 pl. Therefore, the probability of this species colonizing new habitats or being intentionally introduced into new habitats remains high. MS thesis. Australia: Hamlyn. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin.-Reihe-Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche, 41(3):121-124; 8 ref. In the past, the fungus Cylindrocladium scoparium [Calonectria kyotensis] has caused serious seedling losses in Florida (Durst, 1988), but is now controlled by soil sterilization and sprays. E. robusta is one of the Eucalyptus species most widely planted around the world. Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. vol. Eucalyptus robusta belongs in Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus section Latoangulatae because cotyledons are bilobed, leaves are discolorous and have side-veins at a wide angle to the midrib and buds have two opercula. Eucalyptus seed. Newly exposed bark is very smooth and has a glossy surface, whereas older bark becomes finely rough and granular in texture. Tropical Forestry Papers 15. Plantation sylviculture. Turnbull JW, Pryor LD, 1984. 1947. ... though several other species within the Eucalyptus genus have been reported to cause various allergic reactions. However, the impacts on soil quality of different restoration types rarely have been compared systematically. AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. Patterns of natural and manipulated hybridisation in the genus Eucalyptus L'Herit. Little Jr EL, Skolmen RG, 2003. ; 40 ref. Firewood crops. E. robusta occurs naturally in Australia, within a narrow coastal strip from southern New South Wales (near Nowra) to coastal south-eastern Queensland (north-west of Bundaberg). Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. 2011, Stenogyne purpurea (purplefruit stenogyne), http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, David Lea/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Stephen Midgley/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, 1. tree habit El-Gholl NE, Alfenas AC, Crous PW, Schubert TS, 1993. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer, 247-265. novus (see review in Fenton et al., 1977; El-Gholl et al., 1993). forests, in Vicosa, Minas Gerais. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Native distribution: east New South Wales and southeast Queensland, Australia. Moran GF, 1992. Dvorak WS, Franklin EC, Meskimen G, 1981. Melbourne, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. At least 5 million eucalyptus robusta trees were planted in Hawaii between 1910 and 1960 in total, for the sake of the forests, but also as a source for sustainable timber, delivering a hardwood that’s gorgeous and deep-red. Field trials indicate that this hybrid significantly outperforms both parent species in height, volume, cold tolerance, and coppicing ability, but the hybrids tend to be slightly less straight than E. grandis. CABI is a registered EU trademark. It exerts allopathic effects through auto toxicity, its leaf, stem& root extracts /leachates reduce seed Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Turnbull JW, Kleinig DA, 1980. Oxford, UK: Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford. robusta : Sturdy Back to top Trees for saltland: a guide to selecting native species for Australia. f. – Risdon peppermint gum P: Species Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely – narrow-leaf peppermint gum P: Species Eucalyptus robusta Sm. Eucalyptus species have proven with their allopathic. Trees growing on wet sites in open stands often form both small buttresses and aerial roots in major branch crotches (Keating and Bolza, 1982). For. pp. 3. Forest Ecology and Management, 70(1-3):255-264; 33 ref. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture., ix + 374 pp. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. In: Burns RM, Mosquera M, eds. Skolmen RG, 1974. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Definitions of eucalyptus robusta, synonyms, antonyms, ... Distribution and habitat. Eucalyptus robusta Sm., Bot. Pacif. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. World Checklist of Myrtaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Susceptibility of E. robusta to eucalyptus snout beetle, Gonipterus scutellatus, has caused a cessation of planting of the species in some parts of southern Africa (Fenton et al., 1977; Poynton, 1979). The fruits have valves that are usually joined across the orifice, in comparison other species which have free valves.Griffin et al. Sta. Eucalyptus robusta Sm. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/, Grace JK, Ewart DM, Tome CHM, 1996. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. National database of exotic invasive species. In: Proceedings of the 16th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, 1981 May 27-28. It is also found offshore on Great Keppel, Moreton, Fraser and North and South Stradbroke Islands. In Australia on several Eucalyptus spp. Swamps. It is moderately salt-tolerant. Biology of eucalypts. 1971. pp. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. 3. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Closely allied to Eucalyptus elata, but generally distinguished from that species by its mallee habit, smooth bark that lacks a persistent basal stocking, a canopy of less pendulous, smaller, blue-green (rather than green) adult leaves, and smaller fruits.Plants with a generally similar habit (i.e. In Australia, E. robusta is moderately to highly susceptible to insect attack (Marcar et al., 1995). Chemical composition of five essential oils of Eucalyptus species from Mali: E. houseana F.V. Eucalyptus trials in the Northern Territory coastal region. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Eucalyptus robusta,, robusta. [7 refs.]. E. multiflora), robusta eucalyptus, swamp mahogany, swamp messmate, beakpod eucalyptus Family Myrtaceae. Seeds can be secondarily dispersed by water and human activities (Orwa et al., 2009). Robusta Eucalyptus wood: its properties and uses. Govaerts R, 2014. 1962. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture. Australian Forest Research, 8(3-4):153-161; 2 ref. Coleoptera borers (Brazil) and cockchafers (Vietnam) are also reported pests of E. robusta (see review in Fenton et al, 1977). 1968. APNI* Synonyms: Eucalyptus multiflora var. Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. PSW-9:12. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). ; [ACIAR Monograph No. Soil quality assessment is important for karst ecosystems where soil erosion is significant. It is one of the most widely cultivated Eucalyptus species in tropical and subtropical countries, mainly for timber and pulpwood production. In Australia, it is used in general construction and for underground pilings, utility poles and fence posts. Oct 24, 2017 - Explore Stone Koo's board "Eucalyptus robusta" on Pinterest. Currently E. robusta is listed as invasive in Brazil, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and islands in the Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details). ; 73 pp. Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry. ), autumn gum moth, leaf beetle (Paropsis sp. 205. ; ISBN 0-621-04763-5; 208 ref. Ruskin FR, 1983. Research Paper, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Bootle KR, 1983. Dvorak WS, 1981. Distribution. Eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus spp.) Online Database. Scientific Name: Eucalyptus robusta. 2010a, Pritchardia hardyi (Makaleha pritchardia), US Fish and Wildlife Service, Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. Shrub and tree species for energy production. The flowering period is May-July in Australia (Brooker and Kleinig, 1994), September-November in Florida (Geary et al., 1983), January-March in California (King and Krugman, 1980) or at any time of the year in tropical areas such as Hawaii and Puerto Rico (Little and Wadsworth, 1964). For. Res. The capsules are subglobular to more or less hemispherical, 5-21 mm long x 6-25 mm wide, glaucous or not, weakly 4 … Eucalypts in Hawaii: a survey of practices and research programs. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Geary TF, Meskimen GF, Franklin EC, 1983. E. robusta has a dense, deep crown of dark green leaves and seasonally abundant creamy white flowers, and is suitable for shade, shelter and as an ornamental tree (Poynton, 1979; Hillis and Brown, 1984; Webb et al., 1984). swamp mahogany ECOLOGY E. robusta naturally occurs from sea level to 100 m above sea level, mainly on wet soils and freshwater swamps. These monospecific plantations have resulted in the conversion of open ecosystems into forest ecosystems and in the loss of native biodiversity by shading, soil exposure and erosion, allelopathic activity and important modifications in water infiltration and nutrient regimes (Sax, 2002; Orwa et al., 2009; I3N-Brazil, 2014). Skolmen RG, 1971. atitikmenys: lot. 15. bivalva (Blakely) Blakely, Key Eucalypts, ed. (1984), and Holliday and Watton (1989).Foliage 2:xxiv + 677 pp. Craciun GCJ, 1978. It measures 116 feet high, with a trunk circumference of 177 inches and a crown spread of 78 feet. The sapwood is pale brown, 40 mm wide and susceptible to attack by lyctid borers (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Comparison of Eucalyptus grandis provenances and seed orchards in a frost frequent environment. It inhabits areas with a rainfall in excess of 1500 mm, which is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the year. This species has been planted extensively for these purposes in the USA (Hawaii, Florida and California), throughout the Caribbean and in several African countries. 2. flowering twig E. robusta is one of the most widely planted Eucalyptus species, and it has been introduced into many tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate areas, including many countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, America and the West Indies (see distribution table for details). http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2. ; 77 ref. E. robusta is best known as a plantation species in the Madagascar highlands, but also in the USA (Hawaii, Florida, California) and Central America (Puerto Rico). The Eucalypts. Growing eucalypts in Florida for industrial wood production. Curtis, C.R. Tissue culture of Eucalyptus. : Isolation and identification of robustaol B and other constituents / Qin Guo-Wei, Xu Ren-Sheng / Acta Chimica Sinica, Volume 4, Issue 1, pages 62–67, March 1986 / DOI: 10.1002/cjoc.19860040110 (4) Range Exp. London: Edward Arnold Ltd. 1976, v + 82 pp. nov. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71: 466-470. The leaf-eating beetle, Maecolaspis favosa, has reportedly caused serious damage to young seedlings and coppice shoots in Florida; older trees are unaffected (Geary et al., 1983). Juvenile leaves disjunct, broad-lanceolate to ovate, dull blue-green or green. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Combined Proceedings, International Plant Propagators' Society, 32: 98-109. Corymbia intermedia) and sometimes E. tereticornis. Description, Habitat and Distribution information is sourced from: G.M.Chippendale (2017) Eucalyptus robusta. Field Guide to Eucalypts. Eucalyptus marginata was first formally described in 1802 by James Edward Smith, whose description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London.Smith noted that his specimens had grown from seeds brought from Port Jackson and noted a resemblance to both Eucalyptus robusta and E. pilularis. Performance of twelve selected Australian tree species on a saline site in southeast Queensland. rostrata (Cav.) 1981. 3. ... Eucalyptus robusta var. Wilcox MD, 1997. Hill KD, 1991. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 38 pp. Tests of 36 Eucalyptus species in northern California. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Shrub and tree species for energy production. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br. Many Eucalyptus species have relative small distribution ranges. [US Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration, Technical Assistance Project.]. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, pp. 1, 265pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm. HC; Distribution. Forest Ecology and Management, 63(2-3):135-152; 14 ref. Source: James A. Duke. These monoculture plantations generate loss of plant diversity by shading, soil exposure, erosion, allelopathic activity and important changes in water infiltration and modifications in waterways, wetlands and swamps. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html. PSW-8, 30 pp. Cambridge. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. In: Pereira JS, Landsberg JJ, eds. It is highly tolerant to seasonal waterlogging. A palavra Eucalipto (do grego, eu + καλύπτω ) significa “ verdadeira cobertura”, e é isso que as florestas de eucalipto significam para as paisagens Australianas. Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. having an approximate life in the ground of 8-25 years. Institute of Energy Conversion. Contudo, o nome está relacionado à estrutura protetora dos estames, conforme consta no site do Departamento de identification. E. camaldulensis plantation yields in the drier tropics are often about 5-10 m³ ha-¹ yr-¹ on 10-20 year rotations, whereas in moister regions, volumes up … Li Youpu. Sydney: New South Wales University Press, 76-142. Ramamonjisoa L, 1994. The rainbow eucalyptus grows in lowland and lower montane rainforest from sea level to altitudes of up to 1,800 m (5,900 ft). This is the case in Madagascar, where extensive plantations of this species provide fuel, charcoal, transmission poles, construction timber, bridging material and flooring (Bertrand, 1992). Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. E. robusta occurs mainly in open-forest, where it is restricted to swamps, edges of saltwater estuaries and lagoons, or rarely on the lower slopes of valleys (Fenton et al., 1977; Boland et al., 1984). with more than 85,000 entries. Pryor (1976) lists E. robusta as one of the eucalypt species most commonly planted outside Australia. New York, USA; Wiley Interscience. double recessive, or other unwanted phenotypes) occurs rapidly in generations after the F1 stage (Geary et al., 1983).Reproductive Biology. Information about Eucalyptus robusta diagnosis, including distribution and treatment advice Cookies on Plantwise Knowledge Bank Like most websites we use cookies. Forest Ecology and Management, 23(1):47-59; 29 ref. Revista de Microbiologia, 24(4):232-238. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Eucalyptus robusta and E. grandis: provenance trials and tree improvement strategies in Madagascar. Marked by deeply furrowed dark gray-brown bark, eucalyptus robusta grows well in Halawa. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. Pickford GD, 1962. Rockwood DL, Meskimen GF, 1991. 1983, vii + 92 pp. Robusta eucalyptus, Eucalyptus robusta, is native to a narrow coastal area in southeastern Australia.The species is widely adaptable and has been introduced into many tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate climates including Puerto Rico, southern Florida, coastal California, and Hawaii. Corymbia gummifera), E. intermedia (syn. of ref. Flora of Australia, 19. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. This can be avoided if the timber is air-dried to less than 30% moisture content before kiln-seasoning (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Oct 24, 2017 - Explore Stone Koo's board "Eucalyptus robusta" on Pinterest. 64, 1962. pp. ; many ref. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. 101. E. rotunda occurs naturally in the warm humid climate zone, ranging from regions with rare winter frosts and a summer maximum, to a uniform distribution of rainfall throughout the year (Boland et al., 1984). and Wain, K.K. ( Hollis 2004 ). Qualitative evaluation of Genus: Eucalyptus L'Hér. The trunk is usually straight and extends to about one half the height of the tree, or to two thirds of the tree height in dense stands on favourable sites. Smith. ; 63 pl. Eucalyptus robusta is naturally found in Australia growing in a narrow band on the east coast from Jervis Bay in New South Wales to Rockhampton in Queensland, appearing in open forests around swamps or along saltwater estuaries to an altitude of 600 m (1,968 ft). In Sao Paulo, Brazil, E. robusta has been attacked by the bacterium Phytomonas tumifaciens [Rhizobium radiobacter] (National Academy of Science, 1983). [Die industrielle Nutzung der Mikrovermehrung.] Eucalyptus marginata was first formally described in 1802 by James Edward Smith, whose description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London.Smith noted that his specimens had grown from seeds brought from Port Jackson and noted a resemblance to both Eucalyptus robusta and E. pilularis. 102. Breeding strategty for Eucalyptus robusta in southern Florida. World Checklist of Myrtaceae. PROTA4U web database., [ed. 8 refs. robusta is commonly used for fuelwood in many parts of the world. Eldridge K, Davidson J, Harwood C, Wyk Gvan, 1994. Webb, D.E., Wood, P.J., and Smith, J. Seeds can be easily dispersed by wind and secondarily by water and human activities (Orwa et al., 2009). 4th ed. Uses Pulpwood Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Distribution: Eastern Australia. In Australia mature seed may be collected during the summer months from December-February (Boland et al., 1980).Associations. An extensive review of the properties of the wood of E. robusta, and its utilization in several countries is provided by Fenton et al. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. Sta, No. Eucalyptus robusta swampmahogany This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. – swampmahogany P: Species Eucalyptus rossii R.T. Baker & H.G. Eucalyptus plantations completely outcompete native plant species by the action of allelopathic activity that inhibits the probability of germination and establishment of native plant species. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Bees foraging on the nectar of E. robusta flowers produce dark amber, highly aromatic honey of acceptable flavour (Clemson, 1985). Pers. Biomass production by fast-growing trees. (col.); 146 ref. Germination of Australian native plant seed., 46-57, 186-198; 57 ref. Trunks may become encased by aerial roots, some reaching 20 cm in diameter, under wet tropical conditions such as those that prevail in parts of Hawaii (Jacobs, 1981; Durst, 1988). Chippendale GM, 1988. World Agroforestry Centre. External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Similar to other eucalypts, E. robusta does not develop resting buds and grows whenever conditions are favourable (Jacobs, 1955). Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. ; 5 ref. Volume 2. linearis R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm. Wellington, New Zealand: External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Growing exotic forests. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Robusta eucalyptus, Eucalyptus robusta, is native to a narrow coastal area in southeastern Australia. and Duke, J.A. Eucalyptus species have hermaphrodite, protandrous flowers and are primarily pollinated by insects and birds (Griffin, 1989). A Catalogue of the Eucalypts. Lowland tropical hardwoods. Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ, eds. Northern Australia. CFI, Oxford. APNI* Description: Tree to 50 m high; bark smooth, white or grey, shedding in large plates or flakes.
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