and therefore might set himself against David. Jonathan would take target practice and where he shot the arrows would tell David the answer. It. : A small thing – the signal of a single arrow – told David his whole life was changed. Although Saul loved David in the beginning, he soon became intensely jealous of him. : Apparently, David wondered why Jonathan didn’t tell him about the attempted arrest at Naioth. Numbers 10:10 and Numbers 28:11-15 give the Mosaic instructions regarding that festival. These cookies are strictly necessary to provide you with services available through our website and to use some of its features. And Elkanah knew Hannah his wife, and the LORD remembered her. At any rate, Saul demanded from Jonathan a reason for David's absence. Note that blocking some types of cookies may impact your experience on our websites and the services we are able to offer. i. Jonathan was a lot like David. "You son of a perverse and rebellious woman" (1 Samuel 20:30) This vile slur cast upon Jonathan was the ancient equivalent of the vulgar present-day insult, "You son-of-a-bitch." The author of it simply forgot, or never did understand, that Saul was not in town when this interview occurred. 1 Samuel Chapter 20 Summary. For if I knew certainly that evil was determined by my father to come upon you, then would I not tell you?” Then David said to Jonathan, “Who will tell me, or what if your father answers you roughly?” And Jonathan said to David, “Come, and let us go out into the field.” So both of them went out into the field. 1-10.Las pruebas que enfrentó David le prepararon para su futuro progreso. Then I will shoot three arrows to the side, as though I shot at a target; and there I will send a lad, , ‘Go, find the arrows.’ If I expressly say to him, ‘Look, the arrows. I have dedicated him as a Nazirite—all the days of his life.” 1 Samuel 1:23 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint and Syriac your 21 When it was told Saul, he sent other messengers, i and they also … Whatever you yourself desire, I will do it for you, : Jonathan continued to reassure David, bringing encouragement and an offer of help to a discouraged man. As soon as the lad had gone, David arose from. He wanted to know what Saul thought but it was more important for David to know what Jonathan thought. You always can block or delete cookies by changing your browser settings and force blocking all cookies on this website. If Saul’s heart was different towards David, he might have been disappointed but not furious. And he said, ‘Please let me go, for our family has a sacrifice in the city, and my brother has commanded me to be there. "Tomorrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit at the table with the king" (1 Samuel 20:5). God gives us leave, in prayer, not only to ask good things in general, but to mention that special good thing we most need and desire. Jonathan had the answer; and made an immediate response. David is asking Jonathan, “Am I in the wrong here? Now, I want to expand the … What has he done, : Jonathan responded by defending not only David, but, in this cause. We have to see all of this from David’s perspective. And as for the matter which you and I have spoken of, indeed the LORD. By giving David early warning of this Jonathan will help David go in safety. And when the New Moon had come, the king sat down to eat the feast. And send you away, that you may go in safety, : Jonathan knows that if his father Saul intends evil against David it means that David must go, . Jonathan agreed to care for David in the face of Saul’s threat and David agreed to care for Jonathan and his family in the future. you evil, then I will report it to you and send you away, that you may go in safety. And now, if I have found favor in your eyes, please let me get away and see my brothers.’ Therefore he has not come to the king’s table.” Then Saul’s anger was aroused against Jonathan, and he said to him, “You son of a perverse, rebellious woman! David fulfilled this promise to Jonathan (2 Samuel 9:1-8 and 21:7). "David rose from ... the stone heap and fell on his face to the ground" (1 Samuel 20:41). "Commentary on 1 Samuel 20:4". 1 Samuel 20:24-40. But David replied, "Your father knows well that I have found favor in your eyes; and he thinks, `Let not Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved.' But if it pleases my father. This episode confirmed the status of David as an outlaw, to be hunted down and destroyed like a ravenous beast, provided that Saul, with all of the resources of the kingdom of Israel at his disposal, could successfully achieve it. He could have simply stayed there for however long it took Saul to give up or die. 1 Samuel: Bible Study and Commentary. (1 Samuel 20:1). ", "If I am still alive, show me the loyal love of the Lord, that I may not die", "Go to the place where you hid yourself when the matter was in hand", "You son of a perverse and rebellious woman", "Neither you nor your kingdom shall be established", "David rose from ... the stone heap and fell on his face to the ground", Commentary Critical and Explanatory - Unabridged, Kretzmann's Popular Commentary of the Bible, Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. One night of carelessness may change a girl’s life forever. Otherwise you will be prompted again when opening a new browser window or new a tab. Man proposes, but God disposes. He could have simply stayed there for however long it took Saul to give up or die. As soon as the lad had gone, David arose from a place toward the south, fell on his face to the ground, and bowed down three times. And Jonathan said to David, "Come let us go out into the field." But if he is very angry, then be sure that evil is determined by him. How can anyone set out on such a bleak road and be in the will of God? You shall not cut off your kindness from my house forever. Is not the arrow beyond you: It took courage for Jonathan to communicate with David, even secretly – because he knew that if his father became aware of it, he would focus his murderous rage against Jonathan again. And why should my father hide this thing from me? (1-4) David asks Jonathan about Saul’s intentions towards him; Jonathan promises his help to David. Either Saul’s heart has changed towards David and there is safety for you, or Saul was still determined to kill David and the LORD has sent you away. "While Saul lay bound by his trance at Nairoth, David, escaped to the court and got to speak with Jonathan."[4]. i. Meyer on the son of Jesse: “Speaking of him derisively as ‘the son of Jesse,’ thus accentuating his lowly birth, and ignoring the relationship that bound him to the royal family.”. a. Why aren’t you just trusting God?” Instead Jonathan knew David’s heart was pointed in the right direction, and he offered to help. He was a ruler who governed Apparently, Saul used the occasion for a meeting of important members of his government. “David, even if you must leave the palace and your home behind and flee as a fugitive, i. Jonathan shows his spiritual maturity when he says, “, ,” because one might think that the LORD was really. "[8], This trip of David to Saul's court in Gibeah was exceedingly dangerous; but in the circumstances it was absolutely necessary. Click to enable/disable _gat_* - Google Analytics Cookie. INTRODUCTION TO FIRST SAMUEL 20. : David will not return to “normal life” until Saul is dead, and David is king. So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and ate no food the second day of the month, for he was grieved for David, because his father had treated him shamefully. Jonathan also assured David of his protection by warning David of Saul’s intentions. , 1 Samuel 19:6). The pain of being apart was bad enough, but it was worse for David because he was cut off from everything and destined to live the life of a fugitive for many years. David wondered if Saul would take the opportunity to reconcile or take the opportunity to kill him. : Jonathan was aware of the political dynamic between the family of David and the family of Jonathan. But truly, as the Lord lives, and as your soul lives, there is but a step between me and death. Click to enable/disable _ga - Google Analytics Cookie. Then David hid in the field. It is not so: Apparently, David wondered why Jonathan didn’t tell him about the attempted arrest at Naioth. well,’ your servant will be safe. Now the king sat on his seat, as at other times, on a seat by the wall. SAUL DEMANDS A REASON FOR DAVID'S ABSENCE, "Yet Saul did not say anything that day; for he thought, "Something has befallen him; he is not clean, surely he is not clean. When I have sounded my father, about this time tomorrow, or the third day, behold, if he is well disposed toward David, shall I not then send and disclose it to you? What is my guilt? Do I not know that you have chosen the son of Jesse to your own shame and to the shame of your mother’s nakedness? And David said to Jonathan, “Indeed tomorrow, the New Moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king to eat. And as for the matter which you and I have spoken of, indeed the LORD be between you and me forever.”. You shall not die! ” David wanted to know if Jonathan has come to a place of agreement with his father Saul. b. It would turn upon Jonathan's words to the lad who would be assigned to chase his arrows. In these words it is clear that Jonathan recognized the grave danger to himself when God would take vengeance upon all of David's enemies. The problem David mentioned here was simply that of how the result of the proposed test of Saul's attitude could be communicated to David when Saul got back in town. : David asked Jonathan to observe Saul’s reaction to David’s absence at an important feast held monthly for the high officials of state. Why aren’t you just trusting God?” Instead Jonathan knew David’s heart was pointed in the right direction, and he offered. David fleeing from Naioth came to Jonathan, and acquainted him with his circumstances, and entreated his favour, 1 Samuel 20:1; which Jonathan promised, and renewed the covenant with him, 1 Samuel 20:9; a scheme was formed between them, by which David might know whether Saul was reconciled to him, and he might come to court, 1 Samuel 20… He remembered that Jonathan’s support for him was challenged by the fact that his father was against David. What has he done: Jonathan responded by defending not only David, but right in this cause. This bleak road was important in David’s life because if David was to be set in such a great position of authority, David must learn to submit to God’s authority, even if it were through a man like Saul. 2. it will be well with your servant; but if he is angry, then know that evil is determined by him. And when you have stayed three days, go down quickly and come to the place where you hid on the day of the deed; and remain by the stone Ezel. "What have I done? Then Jonathan said to David: “The LORD God of Israel is witness! : Certainly, this was Saul’s intention, despite his previous oath (, As the LORD lives, he shall not be killed. : These would bring one of two messages. What is my guilt? Then he said to his lad, “Now run, find the arrows which I shoot.” As the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him. “Jonathan made one vain attempt to reason with the furious monarch; he might as well have tried to arrest the swelling of Jordan in the time of flood.” (Meyer), And so it was, in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field at the time appointed with David, and a little lad was with him. They wept together: David and Jonathan loved each other and had a strong bond of friendship. Now therefore, send and bring him to me, for he shall surely die.” And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said to him, “Why should he be killed? He didn’t know that Saul set out to get David at Naioth, though previously his father told him everything. But if there is guilt in me, slay me yourself; for why should you bring me to your father"? (35-40) Jonathan reports to David through the signal of the arrows. i. By proceeding, you consent to our cookie usage. A judge was more than a person who presided over a courtroom. And David said to Jonathan, “Indeed tomorrow is the New Moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king to eat. Then Jonathan said to David, “Go in peace, since we have both sworn in the name of the LORD, saying, ‘May the LORD be between you and me, and between your descendants and my descendants, forever.’” So he arose and departed, and Jonathan went into the city. What is my iniquity, and what is my sin before your father, that he seeks my life?” So Jonathan said to him, “By no means! Not himself, not Saul, not Jonathan, not anyone except God. The feast was apparently a night affair, because it was "in the morning" (1 Samuel 20:35) of that third day (following the second of the feast) that Jonathan would give the pre-arranged signal to David. David said to Jonathan, "Behold, tomorrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit at table with the king; but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field till the third day at evening. Click to enable/disable Google Analytics tracking. Nevertheless, if there is iniquity in me, kill me yourself, for why should you bring me to your father?” But Jonathan said, “Far be it from you! This was a pretty bleak road for David to walk, but it was, © Copyright - Enduring Word       |      . He will not be welcome again in the palace and he would not be safe again at home. Jonathan’s response is the same as in 1 Samuel 20:2. : Jonathan and David agreed to care for one another. Now therefore, send and bring him to me, for he shall surely die.” And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said to him, “Why should he be killed? "If there is guilt in me, slay me yourself" (1 Samuel 20:8). He could no longer go home. He would continue to be king, so he thought, in spite of the will of God; and here it appears that he expected Jonathan to succeed him and continue his dynasty. The New Moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king to eat: Special sacrifices were commanded for the new moon (Numbers 28:11-15). Hannah's song penetrates the surface, pointing to the pillars of injustice that must be pulled down. Vv. But the lad knew nothing; only Jonathan and David knew the matter. The first day of the feast, David would be missed; but the real test would come if he missed the second day of the feast. 1. But if I say thus to the young man, ‘Look, the arrows, beyond you’—go your way, for the LORD has sent you away. If he says, `Good? "And he said unto him, God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father will do nothing either great or … "[12] Second Samuel has this statement from the prophet Nathan in his rebuke of David for his adultery with Bathsheba and his murder of her husband: "Neither you nor your kingdom shall be established" (1 Samuel 20:31). But Jonathan didn’t just yield the kingship to David. It often does not seem fair that so much in life should turn on small moments, but a lifetime is made of nothing but many small moments. i. Jonathan expressed astonishment that his father did not tell him but assures David of his heart towards him. on this side of you; get them and come’—then, as the LORD lives, safety for you and no harm. At least not everybody wants David dead (I Samuel 19) 1 And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David. 2. 1 Samuel 20 – Jonathan’s Final Attempt to Reconcile His Father and David A. David, coming from Naioth, meets Jonathan. 3. The pain of being apart was bad enough, but it was worse for David because he was cut off from everything and destined to live the life of a fugitive for many years. v. “Let God empty you out that He may save you from becoming spiritually stale, and lead you ever onward. In this, he also honored Jonathan as the Crown Prince of Israel and the heir-apparent of the throne. Behold, my father does nothing either great or small without disclosing it to me; and why should my father hide this from me? "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". We cannot suppose that this final farewell of these two noble men took place in the open field. Then Jonathan said to David: “The LORD God of Israel. Eli the priest led him. b. "Filial attachment naturally blinded the prince to defects in the parental character. David's word here meant that if Jonathan knew of any sin, guilt, or fault whatever on David's part that could possibly justify his execution, then David requests that Jonathan himself slay David rather than turning him over to the king. As Willis noted, "These events (of 1 Samuel 19-20) transpired over a relatively brief period, following the ostensible reconciliation between Saul and David in 1 Samuel 19:7. "Then said Jonathan to David, "Whatever you say, I will do for you." Jonathan senses that David is in a vulnerable place and he wants to give him encouragement in the midst of it. So when it happened the next day… that David’s place was empty, Saul demanded an explanation. What has he done?” Then Saul cast a spear at him to kill him, by which Jonathan knew that it was determined by his father to kill David. Now the king sat on his seat, as at other times, on a seat by the wall. This bleak road was important in David’s life because if David would be safe now and promoted to king later, David must learn to let God be his defense and his promoter. David's falling upon his face and his repeated bowing down before Jonathan were David's way of extending his thanks and honor to Jonathan for saving his life. When I have sounded out my father sometime tomorrow, good toward David, and I do not send to you and tell you, may the LORD do so and much more to Jonathan. 1 Samuel 1:1 See Septuagint and 1 Chron. Jonathan knew that one day David and his descendants would rule over Israel and he wanted a promise that David and his descendants will not kill or mistreat the descendants of Jonathan. Biblical Commentary 1 Samuel 8:4-20; 11:14-15 EXEGESIS: THE CONTEXT: Chapter 7 told us that Samuel served as a judge over Israel "all the days of his life" (7:15). the New Moon; and you will be missed, because your seat will be empty. It appears that this appeal by Jonathan to David was made during their journey together "into the field." Therefore send and fetch him to me, for he shall surely die." (41-42) The tearful farewell of David and Jonathan. So they both went out into the field.". It is, however, much more. In those days when one royal house replaced another it was common for the new royal house to kill all the potential rulers from the old royal house. What is my guilt? "[9], DAVID AND JONATHAN REAFFIRM THEIR COVENANT, "And Jonathan said to David, "The Lord, the God of Israel, be witness! : After Jonathan learned his father’s heart and intention towards David, he would communicate to David through a signal. b. Jonathan answered Saul, “David earnestly asked permission of me to go to Bethlehem”: Jonathan covered for David, trying to give Saul a plausible (and truthful) explanation for David’s absence. i. After the lad had gone, Jonathan no doubt went to the hiding place where he knew David was waiting; and there, in the safe security of that hiding place, these tearful actions occurred. e. Why should he be killed? But let me go, that I may hide in the field until the third, at evening. a. Critics affirm here that, "Jonathan's proposition that they should go out into the field where they would be free from observation contradicts the intent of the main narrative, namely, that it would be dangerous for them to be seen together going into the field. If Saul has determined evil against David and Jonathan intends to warn him, how will he do it? d. Who will tell me: David now poses a practical problem. You shall not die. And they kissed one another; and they wept together, but David more so. : David now poses a practical problem. God chose David instead, and the Prophet Samuel anointed David as the future king over Israel. i. Indeed, my father will do nothing either great or small without first telling me. 6 If your father misses me at all, tell him, ‘David earnestly asked my permission to hurry to Bethlehem, his hometown, because an annual sacrifice is being made there for his whole clan.’ 7 If he says, ‘Very well,’ then your servant is safe. That reason was the king's knowledge that Jonathan, through his friendship for David, would not have approved of it. You can be sure of it.”. . Chapter 20 begins with the young general David leaving the prophet Samuel presence and finds his great friend Jonathan. And he rose and departed; and Jonathan went into the city.". (18-23) Jonathan proposes a signal to inform David of Saul’s reaction. May the Lord be with you, as he has been with my father. (1-4) David asks Jonathan about Saul’s intentions towards him; Jonathan promises his help to David. 25. the king sat upon his seat, as at other times... by the wall --The left-hand corner at the upper end of a room was and still is in the East, the most honorable place. David's absence on the first day was not considered sufficiently important by the king to elicit any inquiry from him. Go in peace, since we have both sworn in the name of the LORD, : Jonathan knew he might never see David again. Saul’s anger was aroused… “You son of a perverse, rebellious woman”. How will Jonathan get the message to David? Then David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and went and said to Jonathan, “What have I done? b. One night with the wrong crowd may give a boy an arrest record. And he said to him, "Far from it! Saul told … These are days when to stand up for anything more than mere conventional religion must cost something; and for this reason let us never flinch.” (Meyer). "On the third day" (1 Samuel 20:19). He would no longer be welcome among the army of Israel. What is my sin? When I have sounded out my father sometime tomorrow, or the third day, and indeed there is good toward David, and I do not send to you and tell you, may the LORD do so and much more to Jonathan. So when, it happened the next day… that David’s place was empty, : “Speaking of him derisively as ‘the son of Jesse,’ thus accentuating his lowly birth, and ignoring the relationship that bound him to the royal family.”, Jonathan answered Saul, “David earnestly asked permission of me to go to Bethlehem”. No los pone de inmediato en posesión del reino; los guía a través de mucha tribulación, la cual convierte en el medio para equiparlos para el reino. But if it pleases my father to do you evil, then I will report it to you and send you away, that you may go in safety. The king had recently sworn in a solemn oath that David should not die. If your father misses me at all, then say, `David earnestly asked leave of me to run to Bethlehem his city; for there is a yearly sacrifice there for all the family.' Finally, the loving arms of his wife Michal awaited him in their home on the city wall. He was even expected to sit at the king's table in the approaching feast of the new moon. a. Commentary on 1 Samuel 20:35-42 (Read 1 Samuel 20:35-42) The separation of two such faithful friends was grievous to both, but David's case was the more deplorable, for David was leaving all his comforts, even those of God's sanctuary. that Saul set out to get David at Naioth, though previously his father told him everything. All such "difficulties" in the acceptance of this chapter are due to the failure of writers to understand the situation. But should it please my father to do you harm, the Lord do so to Jonathan and more also, if I do not disclose it to you and send you away, that you may go in safety. Jonathan and David probably envisioned working together, as partners, as friends, both before and after the time David became king. The private meeting between David and Jonathan here was possible only because Saul had not yet returned to his court from Ramah. David honored his promise here as revealed in 2 Samuel 21:17. But the Spirit of God came even upon him, and he walked along prophesying until he came … Jonathan knew that God was really for Saul because God offered Saul opportunities for repentance. "[10], "So David hid himself in the field; and when the new moon came, the king sat down to eat food. 1 Samuel 20:24-25 On the new moon's day Saul sat at table, and as always, at his seat by the wall, i.e., at the top, just as, in eastern lands at the present day, the place of honour is the seat in the corner (see Harmar Beobachtungen ii. And Saul said to Jonathan his son, “Why has the son of Jesse not come to eat, either yesterday or today?” So Jonathan answered Saul, “David earnestly asked, to Bethlehem. Christological Focus- The Role of Friendship in Light of Christ’s Coming. Besides all this, a visitation from God himself had frustrated Saul's expedition to Nairoth. Why should my father hide this thing from me? Then David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and went and said to Jonathan, “What have I done? Then Jonathan gave his weapons to his lad, and said to him, “Go, carry them to the city.”. David felt that his death was inevitable and that he walked on a slippery plank over a great canyon. This shows how deep Saul’s hatred of David was – he would kill his own son for siding with David. (14-17) In response, Jonathan asks David to commit himself in a covenant. In those days, it … And what is my sin before your father that he seeks my life"? ! : Special sacrifices were commanded for the new moon (Numbers 28:11-15). And Jonathan rose from the table in fierce anger and ate no food the second day of the month, for he was grieved for David, because his father had disgraced him.". This final meeting of David and Jonathan is sad indeed. But if I say thus to the young man, ‘Look, the arrows are beyond you’—go your way, for the LORD has sent you away. * [ 1:20 ] Samuel : Hannah’s explanation associates her son’s name with the narrative’s wordplay on the Hebrew verbs s’l (“ask,” vv. Then Jonathan said to David, “Tomorrow is the New Moon; and you will be missed, because your seat will be empty. : Again, David seems somewhat shaken by the fact that Jonathan did not tell him about the attempted arrest at Naioth. i. d. So he arose and departed: David will not return to “normal life” until Saul is dead, and David is king. "The shame of your mother's nakedness" (1 Samuel 20:30). At first this did not trouble Saul greatly, because he thought, “Something has happened to him; he is unclean, surely he is unclean.” Ceremonial uncleanliness might cause a person to miss a feast such as this but the ceremonial uncleanliness only lasted a day (Leviticus 22:3-7). "[7] "He also believed that his father would honor his oath that David should not be put to death.
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